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Oceanography GEOL 102-001


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About this Document

Covering Chapters 1 and 2
Dr. Kent M. Syverson
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnny on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 102-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Kent M. Syverson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
History of Oceanography (Chapter 1) September 7 , 2016 Goals: Understand how the science of oceanography is dynamic and built on. Herodotus’ map of the world (figure 2.1), 450 B.C., he got to know his backyard.   Ptolemy’s map of the world (figure 4.1), A.D. 150. Post Roman World Roman Empire collapsed. Knowledge of Greek and Roman trade routes died off with  them. Vikings traveled west; the knowledge of trade routes didn’t die completely.  Middle ages: Arabs became maritime traders.  Traded with India and Southeast Asia for silks and spices  Became accomplished celestial navigators. Money was used for big, huge and powerful armies. Age of Discovery (1487­1522)   Europe sailed to the West (the Unknown) Western Europe monarchs seek trade routes and riches because they didn’t want their  enemies (the Arabs) to be gaining everything.  Columbus, sailed for Spain in attempt to reach Asia to get riches.  Spain  got rich because they discovered the new world and got gold and silver  from South America.  They essentially struck riches.  Other sailors were Balboa, Magellan.   England and Dutch became successful/accomplished pirates. In 1588, the Spanish Armada is defeated by England.  England knew that in order to  project their power to the world and maintain world trade they needed to know and  understand the world’s oceans.   Advances in Scientific Understanding Kepler (1517­1630): Planetary motion. Galileo (1564­1642): Mass and Acceleration. Newton (1642­1721): Unifying law of Gravity; this explained tides. Challenger (Figure 1.13):  British ship that said 4 years for, and only for, scientific  reasons.  They had discovered new aquatic organisms.  Scientists on the ship also measured  water temperature and solidity of water.  They had also means to be able to measure water  depths.  The crew on the Challenger used a steel cable with a weight tied; dropped the weight  over the ship and waited until they felt slack, technically the weight hitting the sea floor.  The  steel cable was over 8200 meters.    Problems with this method was that they didn’t measure ever so often.   Every other area was measured so they could’ve potentially missed  important places like underwater valleys.  Many errors with this method of measuring included: wind, ocean currents/sea level not being level, and  the cable weighed so much that they probably couldn’t feel slack until  there was potentially 1 kilometer of cable on the bottom of the sea floor.   Voyage of the Meteor (1925­1927): was between WWI and WWII.  It was a German  ship.  This was when Germany was blamed for WWI and made to pay repercussions to the other  European countries.  The German ship was the first ship to ever have SONAR and the first to  ever use SONAR.    SOund, NAvigating, and Ranging.   0 2 4 6 8 10 12 th September 12 , 2016 Water Density Water on the surface is less dense than the water in the bottom of the ocean.  This means  that denser water that is added onto the surface of the ocean will sink down to the bottom of the  ocean where all other dense water is.   ***Cork Concept  Lower density substances/materials/objects will float while those with  higher density will sink  Can predict that the water at the bottom of the ocean is of high density  Higher density water will have more salt solidity and will be colder  therefore we can assume that the water on the bottom of the ocean will  have higher levels of salt content and will be colder. Soundwaves going down the ocean would be faster going down yet when it comes up it  would be slower.  Soundwaves DO NOT have a constant velocity. After the war there was a picture of the ocean released, showing continuous ridges,  underwater mountains, and deep trenches.  Scientists thought that this couldn’t have been a  coincidence but couldn’t figure out why there were so many geological forms.   Glomar Challenger (Figure 1.17) 1968­1983  Was a USA ship.  America became the biggest world power on the ocean  with this ship.   Had a tower which was actually a drilling derrick. It also had multiple  motors to help it take cores out of the sea floor.    These cores had many layers that helped scientists understand global  climate change because they had fossilized creatures that worked as  thermometers.   Franklin Folger Map.  Franklin heard stories of how ships carrying mail would have  troubles whenever they would try to go to the 13 colonies.  Franklin’s cousin Folger had the  same problems when him and his crew would go fishing.  What they were hitting was the River  of Water: The Gulf Stream.  The Gulf Stream is a luke warm ocean current. Geologic Time (Chapter 2) What is a scientist?  They are someone who is looking for answers to explain their ideas  that are provable and reliable.  They collect quantitative measures of data.  Researchers willing  to experiment to solve for answers. Scientific method is the rule of thumb that scientists follow in their research.  It is process that has many steps; these steps include:  Hypothesis: an educated guess that doesn’t have any evidence whatsoever.  Experiment: conduct a test in which you use your hypothesis.  Collect quantitative data: collect information or data through observations  and make note of them according to your hypothesis.  Evaluate: make calculations from your data collected.  Reject or accept: see if your results argues with your hypothesis or  reinforces your hypothesis; if your results argues with your hypothesis,  change or modify your hypothesis.  Re­test: test your hypothesis in many different ways; after an accumulated  amount of testing supports your hypothesis, publish hypothesis into a  Theory. As a scientist you must allow for others to test your hypothesis and if there are new  findings, allow them to help revise your theory.   “A SCENTISTS IS A PERSON WHO USES THE SCIENTIFIC MTEHOD TO  EVALUATE/ANALYZE THE WORLD.” Origin of the Universe (Two Ideas) First idea is the Big Bang Theory.  This is the scientific idea of the two.  The theory is  that there was a big explosion (of matter and energy) that created everything in the universe.   Evidence of this theory is that radiation had spewed out of the explosion; the universe is getting  larger and larger, and galaxies are drifting and moving away from each other at a rapid rate. The second idea is Creations.  This is more of a religious idea.  This idea is that there was a supreme being who decided to create everything within the universe. Dr. Carl Sagan was an astrophysist who in the late 1970’s published a television show  called Cosmos, which remains the most watched show by scientists.  His first phrases of the  show are, “Cosmos is all there is, all there ever was, and all there ever will be….” This  means “The universe exists, always existed and will always exist.”  We cannot agree with Dr.  Carl Sagan because those are his own world views and that is called SCIENTIFIC  ARROGANCE. Religious also has an arrogance.  They have two books to help base off their beliefs, they  have a book called the Inerrant Holy Book.  This means that this book is without error, although  many people believe that their own interpretations of what this book says is inerrant or incapable  of being wrong.  This is the Religious arrogance.   September 14 , 2016 Origin of the Earth and Geologic Time  Goals:  Understand the difference between relative and absolute geologic time.   Understand what the rocks (esp. at Devils Lake State Park) tell us about the age of the Earth.   Know the Geological time scale and major events. Devils Lake State Park The rocks there are Quartzite (hard purple rocks) Hypothesis:  At one time, there was loose grains of sands that were deposited by running  water.  Something happened that allowed for the sand grains to change into hard rocks. In order to test this hypothesis, we have to look for evidence that would help us  determine whether the rock was made up of sand or not.  Evidence that the rocks at Devils Lake  State Park are made of sand would include: Layers (sedimentary rocks have layers with different  colors), Textures (stones or rocks made from sand are more than likely to be grainy and rough  while those that aren’t made of sand tend to be smooth), and Fossils (fossilized sea organisms  that would stuck within the rocks or the surface of the rocks).   Glacier Bay Alaska Pretend there is a river that cuts through the sand bar and connects with the ocean there.   Now imagine that there is a flood, what characteristics would be different about the river now  then it was before.  Rivers that are flooded have higher water levels and have rapid water speed.   EROSION is the faster something is moving; the more strength or force it accumulates/has to  move objects.   After a flood has happened, you can tell where the flood has reached out to.  There will  be objects that are foreign to that area like bigger boulders, trees, or other kinds of debris.  This is because of DEPOSITION or as the flood dies down, the water level drops hence the speed of  the water dies down and so does the strength; meaning anything that is too heavy for the river to  carry anymore will be released onto the bottom of the water level. So when you dig through the flood layer you will start to find larger sized objects such as  boulders, trees, pebbles, and etc.  To know when you are out of the flood layer, you’ll find  smaller objects like sand, algae, seaweed and anything that looks like it belongs there.   Sedimentary rocks are made of layers; these layers tend to be horizontal because as running  water deposits sand or other objects they create flat lines on top of each other.   Evidence that has been found or looked at are the ripples found on the surface of the  Rocks from Devils Lake State park.  The ripples look as though there were waves or tides that  made them (fossilized wave ripples).  Other evidence is the layers between rocks but they are  vertical meaning that something had to have happened in order for the horizontal sediment layers to become vertical. Hypothesis (Revised): The vertical layers weren’t formed like that.  Something must have caused the horizontal layers to become vertical. 


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