PSYC3980: Chapter 8 Notes
PSYC3980: Chapter 8 Notes PSYC3980
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Brittany Ariana Borzillo
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Popular in Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC3980 at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
C HAPTER 8: B IVARIATE C ORRELATIONAL R ESEARCH A SSOCIATION Describes relationship between 2 measured variables Assessment Bivariate Correlation o Strength Strong, weak, none o Direction Positive, negative, none o Scatterplots Strong positive Weak negative Assesses with correlation coefficient (r) 0.1 = small/weak 0.3 = medium/moderate 0.5 = large/strong o Categorical variables Bar graphs more accurately represent correlation T-test Tests statistical difference between means V ALIDITIES OF ASSOCIATION C LAIMS Most important o Construct Assesses how well are variables defined/measured Face the degree to which a procedure, especially a psychological test or assessment, appears effective in terms of its stated aims Content the extent to which a measure represents all facets of a given construct Predictive extent to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion measure Convergent refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related discriminant tests whether concepts or measurements that are not supposed to be related are, in fact, unrelated o Statistical Effect size Describes strength of an association Stronger effect size leads to more accurate predictions Usually indicates more important results Statistical significance Inferential statistics o How likely are results to be due to chance o Use probabilities to understand what the data represents and how to extrapolate from sample to population Assess the probability of getting the results if the actual association in population is zero o Cannot collect population information, sample must be able to estimate Probability value = p o Range is between 0 and 1 Cannot be represented as a negative o If p is close to 0, it unlikely that a result comes from the population that has a true correlation of zero o If p is closer to 1, it’s likely that the result comes from population where true correlation is zero Null hypothesis o the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error Statistically significant depends on effect size and sample size o Smaller sample sizes are more effected by chance Outliers Extreme scores Can have a large effect on correlations Both variables can have outliers o Shared or independent from one another Restriction of Range Aren’t sampling from the entire range of either variable Curvilinear Relationships Simple bivariate correlations (r) only assess linear relationships Also important but less necessary o Internal Not formally assessed People mistakenly try to make casual claims for correlational research Should not be done because causal claims require covariance between cause and effect, temporal precedence, and must not have any confounding variable Subgroup problem Can’t rule out a third variable which leads to spurious associations Moderation o Relationship between 2 variables changes depending on the level of a third variable o Could strengthen or weaken a relationship unjustly o External Subgroup problem Can’t rule out a third variable which leads to spurious associations Moderation o Relationship between 2 variables changes depending on the level of a third variable o Could strengthen or weaken a relationship unjustly
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