Week 5 (Sept. 19-23) In Class Notes
Week 5 (Sept. 19-23) In Class Notes PSYC 405
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Morin on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 405 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Alison Kelly in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see History and Systems of Psychology in Psychology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Week 5 9.19.16 (Monday) The New Psychology Wilhem Wundt (1832-1920) Fechner: Originator of psychology Wundt: Founder of psychology Why? Why did Wundt get credit and not Fechner? Deliberate and intentional act (Wundt had intentions publicized) Different from making brilliant contributions Promotes/publishes newly found material Sells an idea to the scientific community Background of Wundt Isolated and poorly socialized as a child; education and socialization improved as a teenager. MD in 1855 from university of Heidelberg; Helmholtz’s lab assistant for 8 years. Taught “Psychology as a Natural Science” in 1862, marking shift from physiology to psychology. University of Leipzig (1875-1920) First psychological laboratory in 1879 Immensely productive as scholar - 88 publications in 4 years - First issue of Journal Psychological Studies in 1881 - Magnum opus: “Principles of psychological psychology” (6 editions) - Advised 186 doctoral theses; popular lecturer (up to 600 students in one class) Elements of Conscious Experience: 3 Goals for Wundt’s Psychology 1) Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements (sensations and feelings). 2) Discover how these elemetns are organized. 3) Determine the laws of connection governing the organizations of the elements. Basic elements of consciousness (Wundt) Sensations Stimulation of a sense organ Dimension: intensity, duration, sense modality Feelings Subjective complements of sensations Tridimensional Theory of Feelings (Metrome Experimens) Feeling states based on 3 dimensions - Pleasure/ displeasure - Tension/relaxation - Excitement/depression Doctrine of Apperception: The process by which mental elements are organized. - Unified, conscious experience (Ex:Tree) - Creative synthesis: A product isn’t the sum of separate elements, but represents a new creation. Method of Introspection: Observing and reporting of one’s own subjective “inner experience”. Wundt’s 4 rules for introspection: 1) Observer must know when experience ends and begins. 2) Observer must maintain “strained attention”. 3) The phenomenon must bear repetition. 4) The phenomenon must be capable of variation Stringent rules produced accurate and replicable observations. Rigorously trained observers logged 10,000 introspective observations before supplying data (no time for reflection). Criticisms of Wundt’s Psychology Disapproval of Introspection - Differences in results obtained by different observers; who is correct? - Objectivity difficulties. - Can’t settle disagreements through replication. Personal Political Views - Malicious defense of Germany during WWI - Outshined by later Schools of Thought Economic and Political Contextual Forces - Post WWI economic forces - Financial ruin of German universities - Lab destruction during WWII bombing 9.21.16 (Wednesday) Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) Pionerring Studies on memory Pyschology should divorce from physiology Broadened scope of experimental inquiry - First undertaking outside physiology Research on learning and memory Sole subject for his own research - Systematic, constant conditions to control for extraneous influences. Basic learning measure: How difficult was it to learn new material? - Number of repitions needed for one perfect reproduction Used non-sense syllables to study memory processes Ex: lef, bok, yat Minimized influence of connections or meaning in material Learned syllable lists of varying lengths to mastery Longer material required greater number of repetitions for correct recall Ex: # of syllables # of repetitions 7 1 12 17 16 30 24 4 Memoring non-sense syllables vs. a poem passage. - 80 repetitions vs. 9 repetitions Meaningless material is 9 times harder to learn than meaningful material o Times between learning and recall 100% recall Immediate recall 1-2 hours after 2 days after 25% recall Time after learning o Forgetting happens most quickly immediately to 1/2 hours after learning material. o Majority of forgetting happens before 2 days. 9.23.16 (Friday) No in-class notes. Peer Draft Reviews during lecture time.
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