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biology 1020 chapter 9 notes

by: Lonnie E hammond IV

biology 1020 chapter 9 notes BIOL1020

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Monroe > Biology > BIOL1020 > biology 1020 chapter 9 notes
Lonnie E hammond IV
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These are My notes from this week from my readings and some things i heard in our lectures.
Princibles of Biology 1
Thomas Sasek
Class Notes
Biology, Cellular Respiration




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lonnie E hammond IV on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1020 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Thomas Sasek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Princibles of Biology 1 in Biology at University of Louisiana at Monroe.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 9 notes 9.1 catabolic pathways by oxidation  Cells can produce ATP in two ways, fermentation and cellular respiration.  Cellular respiration includes anaerobic respiration, and Aerobic respiration.  Aerobic respiration is respiration in the presence of oxygen, while anaerobic respiration happens without oxygen.  Aerobic respiration is the chemical reactions of Glucose + Oxygen→ Carbon dioxide + water +Energy (ATP+ Heat)  This reaction yields 686 kcal of energy (Kilocalories=kcal) which comes in the form of ATP.  Cellular respiration breaks down glucose with redox reactions, Oxidation and Reduction.  Oxidation is the addition of electrons and Reduction is the subtraction of electrons.  Reducing agents and oxidizing agents: Oxidizing agents accept electrons. While reducing agents give away electrons.  In the Respiration the electrons come from hydrogen atoms forming hydrogen ions (H+) which are just hydrogen protons because hydrogen only has one proton and electron, no neutrons. Take away the electron and you got a proton.  The Oxidizing Agents in cellular respiration is NAD+ and FAD. Each one reduces two electrons. When they are reduced they form NADH and FADH . 2 NAD+ is more common because it yields hydrogen Ions (H+) which are then need later on in respiration.  The reduction reactions happens in a series of steps being catalyzed by enzymes using redox reactions, which are Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, Citric Acid Cycle, then Oxidative Phosphorylation. 9.2 notes  Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose (6 carbons) in to two pyruvates (3 carbons) in the cytosol. This happen threw substrate–level phosphorylation which is when Enzymes oxidize the glucose. Its energy pay of phase uses two ATP and the Energy pay of phase makes 4 ATP as well as 2 NADH and 2H . + 9.3 notes  Pyruvate Oxidation Is when two pyruvate turn in to two Acetyl CoA (2 carbons) and 2CO . CO leaves the pyruvate and Then NAD+ takes an electron and 2 2 + becomes NADH + H . Then CoA bonds and forms Acetyl CoA. This happened twice because there are two pyruvates.  The citric acid cycle attaches Acetyl CoA to Oxaloacetate (4carbons) to make Citrate (6 carbons) and at the end it returns to Oxaloacetate. The first half of the makes two NADH and two CO . Leavi2g a 4 carbon carbohydrate. Then ATP is made from a phosphate group that replaced the CoA group. Then FAD takes two electrons to make FADH . Then2a H O comes2in. Finally NAD+ comes and takes another electron. This happens twice so the total yield is 4CO , 2 6NADH +6H , 2ATP, and 2FADH . 2 9.4 notes  Oxidative phosphorylation is the electron transport chain. This is a series of proteins that carry electrons from NADH and FADH down th2 chain to give + them to one oxygen which then bonds with two hydrogen ions (H ) to make water. With energy from the electrons that were transported, it pumps H out + + of the mitochondrial matrix and into the intermembrane space where the H are high in concentration making them want to go back into the matrix. The only way for them to get there is through the ATP synthase. ATP synthase makes ATP by letting charged H go through. This movement of H+ spins ATP synthase making an active site for ADP and P to become ATP. This makes about 26-28 ATP. 2  The ATP from glycolysis, Pyruvate and the citric acid cycle, plus the oxidative phosphorylation make a total of 30 to 32 ATP. 9.5 notes  Anaerobic Respiration is mostly used by bacteria. Anaerobic respiration also has an electron transport chain but it doesn’t use oxygen at the end. Instead they use another electronegative molecule at the end. Sulfur is a common one in bacteria.  Fermentation is a way to make ATP without cellular respiration.  There are two types of fermentation, Lactic acid fermentation, and Alcohol fermentation. Cells that use fermentation only use Glycolysis and cuts off the rest of the respiration process, but it needs NAD+ for the cycle to continue so they recycle it threw the pyruvate instead of the Electron transport chain. For Alcohol fermentation the pyruvate losses a carbon through CO and turns into Acetaldehyde then NADH gives it two of its electrons making it Ethanol. Then the cycle continues.  For Alcohol fermentation the pyruvate losses a carbon through CO2 and turns into Acetaldehyde then NADH gives it two of its electrons making it Ethanol and NAD+. Then the cycle continues.  For Lactic acid fermentation the NADH give electrons directly to pyruvate and makes lactate and NAD+. Then the cycle continues. 9.6  Cellular respiration and fermentation don’t always use Glucose. Proteins, fats, and other Carbohydrates (sugars and starch) can be broken down in glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, as well as the citric acid cycle.  Most polysaccharides can broke down into glucose and other monomers hat can be processed in glycolysis.  Proteins have to be broken down into amino acids and then remove their amino groups. Some of these amino acids can enter into glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, as well as the citric acid cycle. The amino groups are released as waste such as ammonia (NH ), a3d urea. 3  Fat have to be broken down into glycerol and their fatty acids. The glycerol is used in glycolysis and the fatty acids are turned into Acetyl CoA.  Cellular respiration can be regulated when some enzymes (mostly Phosphofructokinase) sense that there are making too much of on a substance like ATP, and Citrate from the Citric acid cycle which acts as inhibitors to Phosphofructokinase which slows down this enzyme in glycolysis which slows down cellular respiration. 4


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