Greek World AAH 1010
Popular in Survey of Art and Architectural History I
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AAH 1010 at Clemson University taught by Beth A. Lauritis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art and Architectural History I in Arts and Humanities at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
The Greek World Greeks are a mixed people out of Mycenaeans and established cities and a common language, Greek. Some appropriated structures are influenced by this culture. Their innovations in painting, sculpture, and architecture paved the road to the Western tradition. Mycenaean palaces are destroyed along with monarchy; a democracy is created. Robert Mills, Washington Monument; view from the mall pathway, 1886- The Pylons of the Great Temple of Amon Obelisk of Queen Hatsheput is adopted in the creation of this work. The phallic shape is a symbol of power and patriarchy. Resurrecting the Classical world comes in and out of fashion. By borrowing these forms, the meanings are carried along as well. Architectural styles of temples and columns are recreated and show power in referencing the strength and power of Greek civilization. Women are viewed as lesser than men and rarely ventured outside of their homes. This is reflected in the Greek art. Greece is known for its unparalleled realistic representation of the figure, ultimately copied by the Romans. Ideal human and ideals are not reality but apply rationality and humanism. The human is the measure of all things. Nothing of excess, everything is reduced to its bare essence creating the ideal. Geometric Art & Orientalizing c 900-600 BCE From 1200-800 BCE, after the end of kingship, there was poverty and no training of masonry, fresco painting, and sculpting. Finally, Greece began to trade with other cities, ending the Dark Age of Greece. Greek production ensues again and a new alphabet is created. Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens Greece, c. 740 BCE- Krater’s appears in cemeteries. The scene on the krater depicts mourning. One of the earliest Greek figure paintings. The pulling the hair gesture is a symbol of mourning. The figures are reduced to flat, angular shapes. This shows the return of the human figure and a return to narrative. This relates to Minoan pottery in that the waists of the figures are pinched. The figures feature a profile head and frontal eye as seen in Egyptian culture. Meander- pattern created from continuous line border, common in Greek works Hero and Centaur, Olympia, Greece, c 750-730 BCE, Bronze- The centaur is half man and half horse composite creature. The story is Herakles battles Nessos, the monster who assaulted his wife. The sculpture is angular and made of simplified forms. Though the centaur is part horse, Herakles is sculpted larger to suggest he is the champion. Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, Thebes, Greece, c 700-680 BCE, bronze- People were traveling around thus influencing the artwork. The statuette may have been holding a bow and arrow but is missing one arm. If so, this would certainly be a sculpture of Apollo. The waist is pinched and the body is angular and stylized. Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes, from Rhodes, Greece, c 625- 600 BCE- the pot is covered in black then the image is cut out of it. Potters hired painters to decorate the pots, as this required great skill. Lady of Auxerre, c 650-325, limestone- Daedalic sculpture- of the oriental time. Any god or goddess is always clothed at this time. Daedalic- Greek sculpture with Eastern influence, known as Orientalizing Archaic Artc 600-180 BCE Kouros, Attica, Greece, c 600 BCe, Marble- This statue is more life-like size. The figure is very stiff and conforming of the block. Not representative of anyone, very generalized. Kouros- generalized ideal figure in Greece, male, ideal body type Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, c 530 BCE, marble- Same pose as Kouros but with a realistic figure. It has an archaic smile to suggest the deceased man is alive. Calf Bearer (Moschophoros), Greece, c 560BCE, marble- The figure is an older man that is clothed and has a beard, therefore, he is not a kouros. He is holding the calf around his neck with archaic smile. Peplos Kore, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, c 530 BCE, marble- female figure is a Koura with archaic smile. She is more naturalistic than Lady of Auxerre. She is covered by a long dress. Ezekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, from Vulci, Italy, c 540-530 BCE- The vessel is a narrative of the two gods playing a game of dice. There are words near the figures as if they are speaking. The narrative is seen on one side of the vessel so not necessarily a work in the round. The figures are rendered similarly to the Egyptian norm with their flat profile bodies and frontal eye. Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game, Orvieto, Italy, c 525-520 BCE, black figure side and red figure side- The vessel is covered in black and the image is created by removing the glaze to outline the figures and negative space, leaving them black, or removing the inside of the figures, leaving them red. Temple of Hera I (Basilica), Italy, c 550 BCE- Features swollen columns in a colonnade. Colonnade- row of columns Ionic-has a scroll-like capital, continuous frieze Doric- has a plain capital, the frieze in broken up by either metopes or triglyphs Transition to Classical Period Early and High Classical Period 480-400 BCE Dying warrior, from the west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, 500-490 BCE- Dying man still has archaic smile which places it before classical sculpture Dying warrior from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia… Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, c 480 BCE- Looks more natural than a Koros figure because his loose stance, contrapposto. The weight is shifted to one side more than the other. His blank stare shows the expression seen in Classical sculpture Contrapposto- sculptural stance where body weight is on one leg and other leg is relaxed. Riace warrior, from sea off of Riace, Italy, c 460-450, bronze- Many bronze sculptures were melted down to use in battle, therefore we rely on records to understand some sculptures. This was pulled from the sea so it may be an original. Bronze has greater tensile strength than marble; less likely to shatter. Charioteer, c 470 BCE- We don’t get much sense of the figure under the straight lines of the garment Zeus or Poseidon, from see off Cape Artmesion, c 460-450 BCE- The figure is very active. This is not an image of a youth because of the beard the sculpture has. Myron, Diskobolos, marble copy of bronze original, c 450 BCE (High Classical)- This work captures the moment the disc is about to be released and has a very active posture. Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman marble copy from Pompeii, c 450- 440 BCE- Has a greater sense of the human anatomy and proportion. Shows great detail and realism. Classical Period: Early, High, and Late 480-323 BCE *Persian defeat death of Alexander the Great *Persian War (490-479 BCE) *Persians sack Athenian Acropolis (480 BCE) *Athenian victory at Salamis (480 BCE) Hellenic identity / “nationalism” *Oath to NOT rebuild Acropolis (479 BCE) *Delian League established (478 BCE) Kresilas, Pericles, Marble herm copy, c 429 BCE- Pericles is responsible for an undertaking that would create more jobs and build the Parthenon. Three goddesses- covered in “wet drapery”. The cloth is sculpted to look sheer on erotic places of the females’ bodies. They are goddesses of love and are represented sensually. Late Classical Period The political unrest of Greece is reflected in sculpture. Gods and goddesses are seen more like humans. Canon of proportions changes from 1:7 to 1:8. Emphasizes the individual. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, c 350-340 BCE- Praxiteles went further with the contrapposto stance and created an S-curve. This is the first instance of a goddess produced nude. She is next to a water jar as if she were bathing and her hand blocks her genitalia to show modesty. This makes the goddess more human and relatable. The piece engages the viewer and the viewers is a part of the work in that they are in this scene with Aphrodite and she is responding to us in her nudity. Praxiteles, Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece, c 340 or copy from c 330-270 BCE- It is unknown if this is an original or a copy. Hermes may be dangling grapes for the infant. Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (Scraper), marble copy of bronze, c 330 BCE- Fig leaf of was added later when figures began being censored. This athlete is caught in the moment of scraping oil off his skin as a way of bathing. Alexander the Great and Macedonian Court Art Philoxenos of Eretria, Battle of Issus, c 310 BCE- Alexander is portrayed as other- worldly as if he has no fear. He is seen in battle without a helmet. The enemy is shown flailing and being defeated
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