Psychology Ch. 5
Psychology Ch. 5 Psych 1560
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 5 – Learning Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience Habituation: Decreased response to a stimulus Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Neutral stimulus elicits a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response Neutral stimulus: Does not naturally bring about response of interest before conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): Naturally brings about response w/o having been learned Unconditioned response (UCR): Natural and requires no training Conditioned stimulus (CS): Previously neutral stimulus that has been paired w/ UCS; brings about response previously only caused by the UCS Conditioned response (CR): Follows a previously neutral stimulus after conditioning Extinction Occurs when previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and disappears o Basic phenomenon of learning Spontaneous recovery: Reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response Operant Conditioning Learning in which a voluntary response is either strengthened or weakened o Operating on our environment Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated Reinforcement: Stimulus increases probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Reinforcer: Stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again Primary reinforcers: Satisfy biological need, works naturally Secondary reinforcers: Stimulus becomes reinforcing because of its association w/ primary Reinforcer Positive reinforcers: Added stimulus that brings about an increase in a preceding response Negative reinforcers: Unpleasant stimulus, removal leads to increase in probability that response will be repeated Punishment: Stimulus that decreases the probability that a prior behavior will reoccur Positive punishment: Addition of something Negative punishment: Removal of something Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement schedule: Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs (use when first learning) Partial (intermittent) reinforcement: Reinforcing a behavior some of the time (use when behavior is beginning to be learned) Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforcement given only after a specific number of responses have been made Variable-ratio schedule: Occurs after a varying number of responses Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforcement only after a fixed time period has elapsed Variable-interval schedule: Time between reinforcements vary Shaping 1. Reinforcing any behavior similar to that of the behavior you want learned 2. Reinforce only responses closer to the behavior you want taught 3. Reinforced only desired response Behavior Modification 1. Identify goals and target behavior 2. Design a data recording system and record preliminary data 3. Select behavior change strategy 4. Implement program 5. Keep careful records of the program 6. Evaluate and alter the program if needed Cognitive Learning Theory Study of learning focusing on the underlying thought processes Assumed link between stimulus and response Latent Learning New behavior is not demonstrated until an incentive is provided Learning occurs w/o reinforcement Observational Learning Learning by observing the behavior of another person or model Mirror neurons fire when one observes another person taking part in a behavior
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