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Final Notes Week 7 Comms

by: Joshua Crump

Final Notes Week 7 Comms COMS 2330

Marketplace > Georgia Southern University > Journalism > COMS 2330 > Final Notes Week 7 Comms
Joshua Crump
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About this Document

These are the last notes before the upcoming midterm they detail all the last readings we did in class.
Communications Research
Shana Bridges
Class Notes
communication, research, journalism




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joshua Crump on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMS 2330 at Georgia Southern University taught by Shana Bridges in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Communications Research in Journalism at Georgia Southern University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Last notes : Communication Research Rubin and Rubin, Chapter 1  Discipline: common interests, united focuses and complementary areas  Be able to identify the focus of each of the subject areas within the communication discipline. o Communication and technology: Concerned w/ mediated communication and how people fulfill their entertainment or information needs by using technologies such as computers, cell phones, MP#s, & digital video cameras. o Group Communication: Covers communication in groups of 3 or more persons. Study how groups emerge, accomplish their goals, and solve problems, and how group leaders function o Health Communication o Instructional Communication: focuses on pedagogy, media effects, and communication in the classroom.  Pedagogy: includes the study of distance learning or televised instruction, use of technology in the classroom, and methods of teaching specific communication classes  Media: examines impact of TV, advertising, or film on children of various ages  Communication: examines various student communication variables o Intercultural and international communication: focus on how people from different cultures communicate and form intercultural relationships, whereas others compare peoples’ interpersonal traits, skills, or behaviors across different cultures o Interpersonal communication: involves the study of people and their interactions or relationships. They study the use of verbal and nonverbal messages in developing and maintaining relationships between people. o Language and symbolic codes: concerned with verbal and nonverbal communication codes. Focus on how these symbols are transmitted, received and come to have meaning for people of the same or different cultures. o Mass communication: focuses on communication from a source or organization to many people via mediated channels such as TV, radio, or newspapers under conditions of limited feedback. Concerned with how such mediated messages are formulated and received and how they affect individuals and society, as well as with media dominance and power o Organizational communication: Concerned with the processing and use of messages betwee and within organizations. Focuses on the complexities of communication in formal structures where many interpersonal and group relationships already exist. Look at organizational networks, systems, conflict, negotiation, training and development, etc. o Public communication: Covers communication in non-mediated public settings and focuses mainly on one to many communications. Primary topics include rhetoric, public address, criticism, freedom of speech, persuasion, argumentation and debate. Research focuses on speaker credibility, ethics, interpreting lit, propaganda, political campaigns, and communication education. Rubin and Rubin, Chapter 10  Be able to identify and define the types of research o Message or artifact-oriented research  Archival/documentary: Centers on finding, examining, and interpreting messages that were communicated in the past. Qualitative (library/documentary, historical, and legal policy research.) Quantitative (secondary data analysis, meta- analysis)  Library/documentary- examine all relevant published materials about our research topic. Include printed materials like chapters, article, papers, speeches and media materials like films, audiotapes, and videotapes.  Historical research: entails drawing conclusions and presenting new explanations about past communication events or communicators. Work with primary documents, records, and artifacts, such as original speeches, letters, and recordings. Original works > secondary sources. Can be biographical, movement, or idea oriented, regional, institutional, case history, or editorial in nature  Legal/policy research: seeks to clarify and to understand how law operates in society. It’s both historical & critical. Centers on issues such as defamation, privacy, restraint of expression, freedom of info and news access, newsperson privilege, free press and fair trial and media regulation.  Secondary data analysis: sheds new light on the prior data, interpretations, and conclusions  Meta-analysis: looks at research trends or themes in published literature. Also draws conclusions about the strength or consistency of communication effects across studies.  Textual research: Be able to identify types of texts and define the following approaches to textual research o Rhetorical criticism: applies Aristotles’s concepts of invention (argument), disposition (arrangement), style, delivery, and effects on the audience to analyzing political debate o Fantasy-theme analysis: looks at language and other symbols used to create shared realities o Dramatic analysis: concentrates on how politicians use tactics of division and identification of the electorate o Cultural criticism: examines the social and economic reasons for the decline in numbers of daily newspapers o Feminist criticism: examines corporate glass ceilings and their influence on the domination of female employees o Marxist criticism: explores how media help foster hegemony and maintain societal power structures  Textual analysis: focuses on media or other content and meanings generated from the content. o Focuses on reading media content/text. They use ethnography & in depth interviews and participant observation to gather audience interpretations of discourse.  Conversation/interaction analysis: focus on everyday interpersonal interactions and result in interpretations of relationships using qualitative and quantitative methods o Qualitative methods to examine the structure, messages, function, rules, and content of people conversations o Aim to discover whether and how people accomplish their interactive goals by looking for themes in dyadic conversation transcribed into text  Content analysis: procedure that helps researchers identify themes and relevant issues often contained in media messages o Look at characteristics of communication messages, learn something about the content and those who make the messages  Survey Research: efficient means of gathering data from large numbers of people. Try to obtain the needed information systematically and efficiently  Data collection methods o Questionnaires o Polls: descriptive form of survey research whereby we try to learn about the attitudes or opinions of certain groups. o Interviews: allow one on one contact between the researcher and the research participant for longer periods of time than survey questionnaires. Allow flexibility of a follow up o Focus Groups: intensive group interviewing that seeks to understand consumer attitudes and behavior. Usually 6-12 people and usually 2 focus groups per topic  Observational Research: look and see how people act in different situations. Observe people in their typical or natural settings and describe the actions or messages of individuals, groups, or media studied. o Ethnography: used to form objective descriptions of social norms and events as they occur. Often results in a case study o Participant observation: used to study social situations or organizations from an insider’s perspective. Researchers participate in the social environment they observe o Unobtrusive observation: researchers want to study communication in a natural setting yet choose not to become participants in the group or organization. o Verbal and nonverbal coding: seek to identify patterns of behavior found in the interaction.  Experimental research: focuses on people & behavior and more concerned with manipulating an aspect of behavior and controlling the environment in order to view reactions better. 1 event will follow the other. Researchers have to control all relevant factors than the one being studied. o Variables (refer to quantitative ppts/lecture for more information)  Independent: variable that affects or influences other variables  Dependent: influence or changed by the independent variable


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