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Chem 111 - Week 05 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Chem 111 - Week 05 Notes Chem 111

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About this Document

These notes cover the topics that were talked about in lecture this week. They are a combination of book notes and lecture notes, with important topics highlighted in yellow and helpful examples hi...
General Chemistry I
Dr. Ruth Tucker
Class Notes
Chem, Chemistry, General Chemistry, Colorado State University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ruth Tucker in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chem 111 - CSU Week 05 Notes StudySoup - Avery Chapter 3: Atomic Structure (cont.) Highlight​: Topics covered extensively in lecture ​Highlight​: Helpful examples 3.8: The Periodic Table and Filling Orbitals ● Condensed Electron Configuration: ​matches the electron configuration plus extra electrons ○ Ex: Carbon - [He] 2s​ 2p​2​ 2 ● Orbital Energies in Multielectron Atoms: ○ Subshells fill in order of s ​ , p, d, f ○ Some overlap of subshells at higher values of n ​ ​ Ex​ : 4​s < ​ (4s​ fi​ up before 3d ​ fills up) ​ ​ ● 4​s → 3d ​ → 4​p ● N-Values: ○ When n increases by 1, the energy subshell also increas​ es by 1 (s ​ , p, d, f) ○ Full subshells have a lower n-value ● Configuration Anomalies: ○ Chromium and Copper do not follow the rules for multielectron atoms ■ Ex: Chromium ○ Anomalies come from stability with half-filled and completely filled d-shells ● Discontinuity in Atomic Number in the Periodic Table: ○ Lanthanides and actinides are in those spots ■ Have valence shell in f-shell 3.9: Electron Configuration of Ions ● Formation of Ions:​ gain or loss of electrons to achieve a filled shell (stable electron configuration) Chem 111 - CSU Week 05 Notes StudySoup - Avery ○ Cations: +​ - ■ Na(g) → Na​ (g) + e​ ● Electron is removed, therefore is separate and creates a positive charge ○ Anions: ■ Cl(g) + e​ → Cl​(g)-​ ● Electron is added, creates a negative charge ● Isoelectronic Atoms/Ions: ​having identical electron configurations ○ Main Group Elements: ■ Form ions by gain or loss of e​ to achieve noble gas configuration ● Ex: Mg → Mg​ + 2e​ = [Ne] -​ ● Cations of Transition Metals: ○ Loss of valence electrons (s-shell) and d-shell electrons in some cases ■ Ex: Fe - [Ar] 3d​ 4s​ → Fe​ - [Ar] 3d​ 6 ● Fe loses 2 valence electrons to form a stable cation ● Sizes of Atoms/Ions: ○ Atomic Radius: ​half the distance between nuclear centers of nonmetals ○ Metallic Radius: ​atomic radius of a metal ○ Ionic Radius: ​half the distance between the nuclear centers of two ions 3.10: The Sizes of Atoms and Ions ● Atomic Size Trends: ○ Atoms across a period get smaller ■ As the atomic number increases, the added electrons are not shielded from the nucleus and are pulled in more strongly by the nucleus ○ Anions are always bigger than the neutral parent atom ○ Cations are always smaller than the neutral parent atom Chem 111 - CSU Week 05 Notes StudySoup - Avery ■ Can pull electrons in tighter because it has more protons than electrons 4+ ​ 2+ ■ Ex: Pb​ is smaller than Pb​ 4+​ ● Same number of protons, but Pb​ has fewer electrons ● The more positive a cation is, the smaller it will be ● Ionization Energy: ​the energy required to remove an electron from an atom ○ X(g) → X + (g) + e​(g) -​ +​ - ○ 1st Ionization Energy (IE​ ): Mg(1​ → Mg​ (g) + e​ +​ 2+​ - ○ 2nd Ionization Energy (IE​ ): Mg​ 2​) → Mg​ (g) + e​ ■ IE​ >2​E​ 1 ○ Trends: ■ Ionization energy decreases down a family in the Periodic Table ● The smaller the atom, the more difficult it is to remove electrons ■ Ionization energy increases across a row in the Periodic Table because atoms get smaller ● Electron Affinity:​ the amount of energy released when an electron is added to an atom


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