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Chapter Two Notes

by: Josie Notetaker

Chapter Two Notes Bio 1101

Josie Notetaker

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About this Document

This material covers types of bonds, atomic structure, and elements.
Intro to Biology
Amy Stottlemyer
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josie Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1101 at Ohio State University taught by Amy Stottlemyer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Week One Notes Chapter Two  Matter o Anything that occupies space and has mass o All matter is composed of elements o All living things reduce to chemical reactions  An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances.  Mass is the measure of the amount of material in an object.  92 naturally occurring elements; such as gold, carbon, oxygen, etc.  Atoms o Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. o Structure includes:  Subatomic particles  Proton-positive charge  Neutron-neutral charge  Electron- negative charge  Nucleus  Electron cloud o Atomic number indicates the number of protons in the atom, which defines what element it is. o Mass number is the sum of protons and neutrons in the atom. o The atomic mass is slightly different than the mass number because it is an average of all the naturally occurring atoms of that element. o Atoms in living environments are reactive with other atoms of elements if the outer shell is not full of electrons.  Chemical Bonds o Form when attractions between atoms lead to electron sharing or transferring. o Molecules are made up of two or more atoms. o Polar bond  Has opposite charges on opposite ends  Prefer other polar molecules  Soluble in polar solvents like water o Nonpolar Bond  No residual charge  Prefer other nonpolar molecules  Soluble in nonpolar solvents like oils o Ionic Bond  Attraction between oppositely charged ions  Ions are atoms that are electrically charged from gaining/losing and electron.  The electrons are transferred in this bond o Covalent Bond  Occurs when electrons are shared between atoms  Shared unequally in a polar molecule  Shared equally in nonpolar molecule  Number of bonds that are able to be formed depends on how many electron spots need filled in the valence shell. o Hydrogen Bond  Weak electrical attraction between hydrogen of one molecule and neighboring polar molecules o Properties of water that are crucial to life  Strong cohesion/adhesion  Moderates heat energy  Water is more dense as a liquid than as a solid  Good solvent for polar solutes o


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