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Photosynthesis Notes

by: locnaschek

Photosynthesis Notes BIOL 1406 02

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About this Document

These notes cover all of photosynthesis and its relationship to cellular respiration.
General Biology I (Majors)
Dr. Randall Terry
Class Notes
Biology, Science, Life Science, Photosynthesis, photosystem
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by locnaschek on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Photosynthesis Equation: 6CO  2 12H O 2 {light energy}  C H O 6+ 12 6+ 6H O2 2 Photoautotrophs: primary producers in ecosystems  Green or blue green in color because of chlorophyll  Bottom of the food chain Electromagnetic Spectrum  Gamma rays, x­rays, and UV rays have too much energy for photosynthesis  Infrared, microwave, and radio waves do not have enough energy  Visible light is the only wavelength section with exactly enough energy for  photosynthesis to occur o Not every color is equally efficient; purple/blue and red are the best while green,  yellow, and deep reds are not very effective Light must be absorbed  Light strikes chloroplast o Some (blues/reds) are absorbed o Rest is either reflected (green color seen) or transmitted Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis  Leaves have the best structure for this process (higher surface area to volume ratio) o CO  g2es in and O  co2es out o Folds of the chloroplast increase the surface area of the membrane  Structure: o Outer membrane o Inner membrane o Stroma (inside matrix) * o Thylakoids (hollow, folded membranes) * o Grana (stack of thylakoids) o Lumen (inner space of grana) * o * items are highly involved in photosynthesis Pigments  Chlorophyll reflects green light o Carotenoid reflects orange o Xanthophyll reflects yellow  Chlorophyll a is the primary pigment o Chlorophylls b, c, and carotenoid are the accessory pigments (protect and help the primary)  The Action Spectrum and Absorption Spectrum are about the same (about the same peaks in each, and about the same go down) Two Parts to Photosynthesis  Light Reactions (linear) o Occurs on the surface of the thylakoid o Requires light energy and H O 2 o Produces ATP and NADPH (high energy molecules) and oxygen as a byproduct o Involves the Electron Transport Chain, similar to cellular respiration o Light + H2O  light reactions  releases ATP and NADPH into the chloroplast  and O 2out of it  Calvin Cycle (cyclic) o Works in tandem with the light reaction o Requires ATP, NADPH, and CO 2 o Produces ADP, NAPD , and CH O as a b2product o Involves both Photosystems (the end of II and most of I) o CO  2Calvin cycle  takes ATP and NADPH from the light reaction  releases  + NADP  and ADP + P to tie light reaction and CH O out 2f the chloroplast o Uses light indirectly  Altogether, light energy, water, and CO  g2 in and O  a2d CH O co2e out  Two parts to the light reactions: o Photosystems I and II  Collection of hundreds of pigments surrounding a reaction center complex which contains two special pigments called reaction center chlorophylls  Absorbs light energy and transmits it to the electron flow  Electrons do NOT come from the chlorophylls; they come from water  molecules whose bonds are broken upon entering the cycle  Photolysis (occurs only in photosystem II): “light splitting,” oxidizes  water and makes electrons available to reaction center chlorophyll  (produces 2 protons, 2 electrons, and oxygen)  Oxygen Evolving Complex (OEC) carries out photolysis  Requires manganese o *Photosystem I was discovered first but occurs second! o The electrons go through the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), lose energy, and  pump protons from stroma into lumen  2 protons pumped across into the lumen + 2 from photolysis = 4 protons  go through the ATP synthase to create 1 ATP (4 protons = 1 ATP)  Energy lost as the electrons go through the chain  Photosystem I receives electrons from Photosystem II and produces 1 ATP and 1 NADPH  They need more ATP than NADPH; this is where the Calvin Cycle comes into play (they transfer electrons back to PS II at the  cytochrome complex in order to create more ATP than NADPH)  The important protein of Photosystem II ETC is the cytochrome complex o Low energy CO  en2ers and high energy G3P exits  “Energy investment phase” occurs between low­high energy (ATP invests  energy)  “Regeneration phase” occurs between high­low energy (ATP put in to  energize) o Protomotive force is the protein gradient created when protons are pumped from  one side of the membrane to the other  The ATP synthase makes 1 ATP from every 4 H  ion (proton)  Membrane separates the lumen and stroma for photosynthesis; it separates  the intermembrane space and matrix for cellular respiration Resonance energy transfer: transfer of light energy from one chlorophyll molecule to another at  last to the reaction center chlorophyll (a); the only difference between the reaction center  chlorophyll is the environment (next to a protein); converts energy from light into electron flow Important molecules to know for Calvin Cycle:  Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P) o High energy product     C2  (inorganic carbon) o Low energy input     Rubisco (enzyme of carbon) o Carries out carbon fixation (very slow, only 3 carbons fixated per second)  Photosynthesis    and   Cellular Respiration   are  complementary  In CR, sunlight goes into chloroplast, converts energy into CH O, goes 2nto  mitochondrion, converts sugar to ATP which provides energy for cellular work  In P, O  comes out (of chloroplast) as byproduct, goes into mitochondrion to act as a  2 primary electron acceptor (produces H O) 2  In P, CO  comes out of mitochondrion as a byproduct, goes into chloroplast to power the  2 Calvin cycle (H O 2lso enters chloroplast)


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