Lecture 01 - Introduction to Microbiology
Lecture 01 - Introduction to Microbiology Bio 229
Santa Ana College
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Study_Smarter_Now on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 229 at Santa Ana College taught by Ou, M in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Biology at Santa Ana College.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
[08.22.16] MONDAY LECTURE 01 - INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY MICROBES IN OUR LIVES: Microorganisms: Organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eyes → need microscope to see them • Typically 0.2mm or smaller • Few are pathogenic Salmonella, streptococcus, influenza virus, etc. Pathogenic: Disease-causing • Most are beneficial & non-pathogenic. - producers (can do photosynthesis & provide nutrients for other organisms) and / 0r decomposes (breakdown dead material) in the ecosystem. - industrial production of ethanol, acetone - fermentation , produce fermented foods - biological production by pharmaceuticals • Insulin, clotting factors, INF, etc. (Isolate gene from organism & put into bacteria to produce lots and lots of pure copies for use) • Knowledge of micro organisms allows us to: - prevent food spoilage (control spoilage) - prevent diseases from transmission (helped us improve our healthcare) - conduct medical procedures without infections (thanks to antibiotics and sterile techniques) • Development of aseptic techniques Aseptic: Free from contamination caused by microorganisms Sterile = nothing will grow ... Sterile ≠ aseptic TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS: ✦ Prokaryotic: (lack nucleus) • Bacteria → Lack nucleus → reproduce by binary fission (grows exponentially) → for energy use: - organic chemicals - inorganic chemicals - photosynthesis • Archaea → lack nucleus → live in extreme environments - extreme halophiles (salt-loving) - extreme thermophides (heat-loving) ✦ Eukaryotic: (larger than prokaryotes) • Fungi → have nucleus and organelles → reproduce by spores - basically are what seeds are to plants - Sporangia: Where spores are stored → can be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mold & mushrooms) • Protozoa → Unicellular aquatic eukaryotes - very diverse in lineages → absorb or ingest organic chemicals for energy → May be motile via: - Pseudopods - cilia - flagella • Algae → Photosynthetic eukaryotes - can feed themselves, but they can also become food for the rest of the food chain → Biofuel production • Multicellular animal parasites (are microscopic in larval stage) → Parasitic multicellular eukaryotic animals - often change hosts at different life stages → Helminths: Parasitic flatworms and round worms • microscopic larval stages ✦ Acellular: (non-living entity) • Viruses & Viroids → acellular parasites - can't do anything on their own, require a host cell → DNA / RNA genome core surrounded by a protein coat - Doesn't have a plasma membrane - protects the genetic material of the virus → Requires a compatible host cell to produce (what makes a virus parasitic) - this is the only time the virus is actually active - they can't live on their own - They take their DNA/ RNA genome in their core and inject it into the host cell, cell will become a virus making factory. • basically what causes the host problems.
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