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Notes for Weeks 2-3

by: Bailee Hyde

Notes for Weeks 2-3 PSYC 100 - 001

Bailee Hyde
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About this Document

These notes contain information regarding organelles, parts of the neuron, action potential, sensation vs perception and transduction.
Intro to Psych
Douglas B Matthews
Class Notes
sensation, perception, action, potential, transduction, Vision




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailee Hyde on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100 - 001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Douglas B Matthews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Bio Psychology Bio physiology:  Bio Psychology: How the nervous system impacts behavior.  Split Brain: A condition where the corpus callosum is severed in a person’s brain, thus separating the neural connections within the brain. o Right side of the body is controlled by the, “left” brain o Left side of the body is controlled by the, “right” brain Organelles/Cells  Nucleus: Contains DNA; nuclear membrane that creates a separation for DNA.  Mitochondria: Produces energy for the cell.  Golgi Apparatus: The packaging system for the cell.  Endoplasmic Reticulum: Ships for the cell.  Ribosomes: Make proteins for the cell.  Bi-Lipid Membrane: Cell membrane with two fats. (Bi-Permeable- allowing various things to enter or not)  Lysosomes: Process that gets rid of cells that are not needed. Genetic Influence:  Phenotype: What can be observed? o Behavior, eye color, cell structure, etc.  Genotype: What genes are present? o Exist on chromosomes  Mostly probabilistic & mainly junk o Exist in 4 nucleotides o Transcribed into Messenger RNA (mRNA) o Converted to proteins at ribosomes -Mutations are possible during transcription- Neuro-cyto-architecture:  Dendrites: Site at which (electrical) information enters the neuron.  Axon Hillock: The decision making part of the neuron.  Axon: Site at which information comes out of the neuron.  Myelin Sheath: Covering on the axons that speeds up the action potential from the axon hillock to the terminal button.  Synapse: Space between neurons, meaning Neurons don’t touch each other.  Salutatory Conduction: Jumping from node to node. Action Potential:  Electrical communication within a neuron. o Produced by flow of ions across a neuron’s bi-permeable membrane (semi-permeable) o Uses sodium and potassium o Uses pump to maintain the appropriate concentration of ions (shows an active process)=Sodium Potassium Pump o Leaky ions that are constantly trying to cross the membrane; but are thrown out by the pump  Pump produces an unequal distribution of sodium and potassium across the membrane  Sodium=high on the outside  Potassium=high on the inside  Depolarization: Opening of Voltage Dependent Sodium Channels.  Action potential starts at the axon hillock  Synapse: Space between neurons, meaning that neurons DO NOT touch each other. o Pre-synaptic neuron=electrical o Synapse=chemical o Post-synaptic neuron=electrical Sensation vs Perception:  Sensation: (Biological) How do things from the outside world get into our brains? o External stimuli interact with specific receptors to create neural information  Perception: (Cognitive) How does our cognition process sensation? o Meaning/connotation is given to a sensation o Often does not match our sensations  Transduction: Process by which external stimuli are converted into neural information.  Absolute Threshold: The amount of stimuli needed before a sensory system can register it. o Body parts have different ones o Only 50% of the time  Difference Threshold: Minimum difference in intensity of a stimuli so that the difference is noticed 50% of the time. o Weber’s Law: Notice a larger relative difference/ratio o Cannot perceive radioactivity  Adaption: Nervous system and perception adapt or reduce, to the influence of a constant sensation. o Constantly changing o Allows brain to focus on critical cognitive load  Bottom Up: Sensation influences perception. o Basic to complex o MOST COMMON  Top Down: Perception influences sensation. o Alters perception of a given sensation Vision:  Rods: Receptors for shades of greys.  Cones: Receptors for colors, using the Fovea.  Bi-polar Cells: Take information from the receptor cells. o Projection from two ends  Horizontal Cells: Helps with the detection of lines. o Projects horizontally  Amicron Cells: Help with low light detection. o Magnify a signal in the peripheral of the eyes. Transduction in the Visual System: 1. Photon of light interacts with receptors of rods or cones. 2. Changes conformational shape or rod or cone 3. Depolarization and closes Potassium Channels (Sodium channels are not opened) 4. If threshold is met, then Action Potential.


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