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BIOL 2312 Week 6 Class Notes

by: Sarah Westermann

BIOL 2312 Week 6 Class Notes Biol 2312

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > Biol 2312 > BIOL 2312 Week 6 Class Notes
Sarah Westermann

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About this Document

Covered the endocrine system and began reviewing the musculoskeletal system.
Introduction to Modern Biology II
Michelle Wilson
Class Notes
Endocrine system, Musculoskeletal, Biology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Westermann on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2312 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Michelle Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
September 27, 2016  Endocrine System o Includes all organs and tissues that secrete hormones o Endocrine  Ductless  Secreted into extracellular fluid  Carried in blood o Exocrine  Duct  Secrete product into a duct  Create a quantity based on the stimulus and deliver it to a specific area o Only targets with receptors are able to respond  Pituitary gland (hypophysis) o At base of hypothalamus o Physical extension of hypothalamus o Runs the show o Known as the “master gland” o 2 visual regions  Anterior side (Anterior Pituitary)  Front  Appear glandular  Developed from pouch of epithelial tissue of embryo’s mouth  Very compact, uniform look  Does all the work for the pituitary  Produces and secretes 7 essential hormones o No back-up mechanisms in the body if these hormones can’t be produced  Controlled by hormones from hypothalamus  Glands need regulation  Example: hormone delivered by the hypothalamohypophyseal portal system o Portal  Vessel system - capillary bed to another capillary bed but does not go through the heart  Acts like a duct  Negative feedback and feedback inhibition  Posterior side (Posterior Pituitary)  Back  Appear fibrous  Storage container  Doesn’t produce anything  Stores and releases 2 hormones - neuroendocrine reflex o Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)  Peptide hormone  Usually produced during dehydration  Stimulates water reabsorption by the kidney  Inhibits diuresis (urine production)  Intricate balance between kidney and ADH  Makes you thirsty, inhibits sweating  Heat Stroke: thirsty, sweating inhibited, pass out (due to drop in blood pressure - blood volume depleted) o Oxytocin  Positive feedback  Composed of 9 amino acids (very small)  Peptide hormone  Only shows up in milk ejection and labor contractions  Both males and females have this hormone  Still unsure why males have it  The two have different embryonic origins o If the pituitary glands has problems; everything else has problems  Tropic hormones (tropins) o Act on another gland o 3 categories  Peptides Hormones  Very small  Not much structural complexity  ACTH o Works in adrenal cortex gland  MSH o Makes melanin (pigment) for hair and skin  Protein Hormones  Much larger and more complex than peptide hormones  Single chain of ~200 amino acids  GH o Disorders  Over- or undergrowth  Gigantism versus pituitary dwarfism  Acromegaly  Affects protein, lipid, and carb metabolism  PRL o Positive feedback o Milk production  Glycoprotein Hormones  Very complex  Dimers (2 identical subunits) o Contain alpha and beta subunits  TSH o Tropic  LH o Gonads o Ovulation (in females) o Help other cells nurture sperm (in males)  FSH o Gonads o Develops the egg (in females) o Develops sperm (in males)  FSH and LH named after function in women  Hypothalamus o Produces 2 hormones o Stores them in posterior pituitary gland  Thyroid o Front of the neck; can feel it when you swallow o Goiter  Enlargement of thyroid  Lack of iodine  Thyroid hormones can’t be produced without iodine  Try to compensate by getting bigger  Resolved by intake of iodine (table salt) o In the thyroid gland (lipophilic)  T4  Precursor  Similar function as T3  T3  More active form  Intracellular receptors in nucleus o Hypothyroidism (slow metabolism) vs hyperthyroidism (fast metabolism) o TSH  (in frogs) activated when limbs begin to grow and tails are lost o Calcitonin  Stimulates uptake of Ca2+ into bones  Lowers blood Ca2+ levels  Not the only thing that regulates calcium blood levels  Calcitonin is usually one of the last options  Parathyroid o Behind thyroid o 4 small glands attached to thyroid o Produce PTH  Antagonist of calcitonin  Stimulated by drops in Ca2+ blood level  Can take calcium from intestines, kidneys, and bone o Vitamin D  Parathyroid controls conversion from nonfunctional to functional  Thymus o Immune driven  Heart o Secondary hormone function September 29, 2016  Parathyroid o Acts as antagonist - parathyroid hormone to calcitonin o Raises blood Ca2+ levels  Gets calcium from ingestion, calcium pulled back from urine in kidneys, can also be pulled from bones  Pulling calcium from bones is usually a last resort since it would weaken the bones  Adrenal Glands o Located on top of kidneys o Also known as “super-renals” o One on top of each kidney o Medulla (inner region)  Innervated directly  Stimulated by sympathetic NS “fight or flight”  Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine  Effector: Catecholamine Hormones  Short-term stress response o Cortex (outer region)  Stimulated by ACTH  Turns on production of corticosteroids  Cortex has 3 layers, each layer produces a different hormone  Cortisol  Stress  Manages sugar  Weight gain or loss  Aldosterone  Mineralocorticoids  Mineral balance regulation  Effector: glucocorticoids  Long-term stress response  Pancreas o Exocrine and endocrine glands o Connected to duodenum of small intestine o Cluster of cells unique to pancreas - islets of Langerhans o Insulin  Produced by beta cells  Gets rid of high glucose blood levels by storing blood glucose in receptors o Glucagon  Produced by alpha cells  Promotes hydrolysis of glycogen  Once we exhaust this we begin burning fat o Insulin and glucagon are antagonistic o Diabetes  Type I  Beta cells do not function properly or are not there at all  Genetic; hereditary  Type II  Beta cells function just fine; insulin production works  Cells won’t take in sugar  Insulin receptors reject the sugar  Low number of insulin receptors  Insulin receptors can be brought back with a healthy diet and exercise  Gonads o Ovaries and testes in vertebrates o Sex steroids are produced o Females: estrogen and progesterone o Males: androgens (includes testosterone)  Androgens are a class of hormones  Pineal Gland o Secretes melatonin  Synchronizes sleep/wake cycles (circadian rhythm) o Can detect light on its own o Sometimes referred to as the “third eye”  Other Hormones o Production of hormones in these organs serves as a secondary function o Atrial Natriuretic Hormone  Secreted by the right atrium in the heart  Helps monitor high blood pressure  Promotes salt and water secretion  Water always follows salt o Erythropoietin  Secreted by kidneys  Makes more red blood cells  Which allows for more oxygen in blood  Good for muscles  Used for doping purposes sometimes  Insect Hormones o Molting  Organism just growing larger  Sheds exoskeleton for new one o Metamorphosis  Transformation point  High levels of brain hormones cause molting o Juvenile hormones  Run the show  Appears in molting phases only  Insect won’t metamorphosize if juvenile hormones are present  Musculoskeletal system o Form (skeletal) and function (muscular) o Pulling mechanism - works in pairs (when one contracts another relaxes)  Pulls against skeletal frame  Myofibrils => Muscle Fibers => Bundles => Muscles o Myofibrils  Made of actin and myosin (contractions occur at this level)  Thick (myosin) filament  When multiple myosin molecules are wrapped together  Myosin heads talk to actin binding point  Ratio of actin is higher when compared to myosin  Actin molecules attach to Z-Disk  Z-line contraction unit (unit contracts as a whole)  ATP is important in this process o Muscle Fibers  Multiple cells fuse together o Bundles  Multiple muscle fibers come together o Muscles  Multiple bundles o Multiple layers allow for good control


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