Bio chapter 1 & 2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tania Molnar on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at Oakland University taught by Dr. Gerard J. Madlambayan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see in Biology at Oakland University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Biology Levels of organization: 1. Atoms 2. Molecules and macromolecules 3. Cells 4. Tissues 5. Organs 6. Organism 7. Population 8. Community 9. Ecosystem 10. Biosphere DNA -> RNA -> protein -> characteristics The environment around us will affect our characteristics Evolutionary change: 1. Vertical descent - Mutations -> stronger ones survive (natural selection) 2. Horizontal gene transfer - Genetic exchange between species Classification: Taxonomy- grouping of species based on common ancestry 3 domains: - Bacteria (no nucleus) unicellular prokaryote - Archaea unicellular prokaryote - Eukarya (nucleus) unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Binomial nomenclature Species Genomes and Proteomes: Complete genetic proteins that a cell/organism can make Makeup of an organism The genome carries the info to make its proteome Proteins: responsible for structure & function of cells Cystic Fibrosis: People with CF produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus; obstructs the lungs and pancreas Researchers hypothesize that the CF gene encodes a protein that transports chloride ions (Cl ) across the membrane of cells Defective transporter protein -> salt imbalance -> affects water levels outside the cell Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life I: atoms, molecules, and water All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules (bonded together) Interact for function and structure Atoms -> can’t be broken down - 3 subatomic particles: protons(+), neutrons and electrons(-) - Electrons: - travel in orbitals - s orbitals - p orbitals st 1 shell: holds 2 e- 2 ndshell: holds up to 8 e- 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p Protons -> atomic number - Equal to # of electrons in the atom Atomic mass: # protons + # neutrons - Dalton (D) unit Mole - 6.022 x 10^23 (avogadro’s number) Isotopes - Differ in # of neutrons Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen = 95% of living things 2 or more atoms bonded together -> molecule O2 2 or more DIFFERENT atoms bonded together -> compound H2O 3 types of bonds: 1. Covalent - polar - nonpolar 2. Hydrogen 3. Ionic Covalent - Shared electrons - (when outer electron shells are not full) - Strong bonds - Single, double, triple bonds Octet rule: atoms are stable when outer shell is full (usually 8 e-) Polar Covalent Bonds - Electrons aren’t equally shared - Atoms have different electronegativities (attract e-) - Polarity + and – Nonpolar Covalent Bonds - Similar electronegativities - Equal electron sharing - C-H bonds Hydrogen Bonding - Weak bonds - Hydrogen atom attracted to electronegative part of another molecule - (-) and (+) bond to each other Ionic Bonds - Atom has gained or lost one or more electrons Now has a net electric charge - Cations (+) - Anions (-) - More stable since outer shell is full Chemical reactions - Reactants -> products - All require ENERGY - Often require a catalyst (enzymes) Properties of water - Living things composed of water (60-80%) - Solution is made up of: Solvent- liquid Solutes- substances dissolved in solvent - Aqueous solution -> water is the solvent - Hydrophilic substances -water loving - dissolve in water - electrically attracted to polar water molecules - Hydrophobic - water fearing - doesn’t dissolve in water - nonpolar molecules - Amphipathic -both loves - both polar/ionized and nonpolar regions Molecular Mass and Moles = atomic mass of all atoms x the # there are of each one EX) sucrose C12H22O11 (12 x 12) + (22 x 1) + (11 x 16) = 342 D - Moles - 1 mole is the amount of substance in grams equal to its atomic mass - 1 mole of sucrose = 342 grams of sucrose - = 6.022 x 10^23 molecules of sucrose Molarity - Concentration amount of solute/solvent Water H20 - Changes in state require input of energy - Super stable as a liquid - Due to hydrogen bonding -> cohesion Water molecules stick together Adhesion - water molecules stick to surfaces Surface tension Acids and Bases -release hydrogen lower H+ concentration H+ Release OH- - pH 7 is neutral - below 7 is acidic - above is basic - Buffers keep constant pH
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