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Chapter 22 - Week 6 - Adaptive Defense - 3rd line

by: Kimberly Krause

Chapter 22 - Week 6 - Adaptive Defense - 3rd line 2402

Marketplace > Tyler Junior College > Biology > 2402 > Chapter 22 Week 6 Adaptive Defense 3rd line
Kimberly Krause
Tyler Junior College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This document covers the 3rd Line of defense for the immune system.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cates
Class Notes
adaptive immune system, Antigenic Determinants, Antigens, Hapten, autoimmune, Self/Non-self, MHC
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/26/16 Immune System - Adaptive Defense - 3rd line Covered on this doc Immune System Big Picture Innate Defense 
 1st Line: Surface 
 Skin and Mucous Membrane 
 (Born with it) 
 Ex. Inhaling good air in the countryside, but there’s a pig 
 farm near by. You end up inhaling pig poop, which is 
 known for the parasites. It has the worm Ascaris’ egg. You 
 inhale this and the worm ends up in your stomach. You 
 will lose weight because of the worm eating your nutrients. You need to deworm, which is a poison that —————————
 causes the worm to unlatch and and be digested. ———————————— 2nd Line: Internal (When it gets past walls of your Phagocytes, fever, NK cells, Complement Proteins, membrane) Interferons, Inflammation Adaptive Defense 
 3rd Line: Cellular Immunity T cells (Targets directly) (Developed it because (cells are attacking)
 Ex. like grabbing a flyswatter and killing a cockroach of exposure) 
 directly —————————
 ———— Humoral Immunity B cells (Kills everything in sight) (Humor - means fluid - acting Ex. Fogging a whole house and killing ALL the bugs
 and carries antibody) 
 APC’s Antigen (Target) Presenting Cell Humoral Immunity B Cells (antibody mediated) -B cells see and respond to antigens outside of the cell. (Antigens of viral particles, bacterial, yeast spores). -After activated, most B cells differentiate into plasma cells which produce antibodies. And some produce memory B-lymphocytes. -Antibody attacks any cell it comes in contact with. -Makes specific antibodies -Self activating B cells is APC B Cell (More about B cells on next document) Cellular Immunity T Cells (cell mediated) T cells - 1) Cytotoxic T Cells 2) Helper T Cells Travel to target which is a cell. If the pathogen is not a cell, such as a splinter, it can’t do anything with it. T cells need APC’s to start. Doesn’t find own target. T Cells make cytokines. Helper T Cell Page 1 of 3 Cytotoxic T Cell A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/26/16 (More about T cells on next document) Before we get into details about B and T cells we need to cover a few items that relate to them. Antigens “against” “create” (little external tags) Big Size which is why are are Macronutrients - They are mainly made out of proteins, but they can be made out of carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acid. The proteins are most unique to you. They hang outside of the cell which makes them more visible. 1. Complete antigen a) Immunoglobulin and “the ability to start a reaction” b) Reactivity - they can be the target at Ex. Man walking into bar saying “Marines are stupid.” Every marine would want to fight him and give him a piece of their mind. 2. Incomplete antigen = Hapten -Can NOT start a reaction. -Can not be recognized by body and can be the victim of it. Ex. Little kid walking into the bar saying “Marines are stupid.” The marines wouldn’t fight the kid. Hapten -Is an antigen, but very small. Almost a “half” antigen. -one piece of hapten can’t start a reaction unless there’s a group of them. Allergy (hapten to non-allergic people) Allergic person has proteins that picks up the haptens then organizes them and adds them together. This group of happens becomes dangerous and can cause a reaction. Ex. Poison Ivy when oils come into skin they bind to proteins and they build up and cause problems. Hypersensitivity 1000x worse -1 exposure can be fine, but 2nd, the mast cells will already have IgE from first and will dump histamine directly. Edema will go up, blood volume down, blood pressure go down. Can be very dangerous and lead to anaphylactic shock. Page 2 of 3 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/26/16 Antigenic Determinants -Exact trigger to tell if it is a pathogen. These are located ON the antigen. -Antigens have components called antigenic detriments Ex. If you needed to go through all of the books at the library to find the “bad books,” you would just give everyone a “bad word” they are looking for. So they would scan each title to look for the bad word. The same is with the pathogens, the cells can just look at the antigenic determinants to see if it’s a pathogen. So the analogy is Book to Title to Word. Or Car to Sticker to Symbol. Basically, you judge the book by it’s cover. Autoimmune -Happens when your cells misread something and attack the wrong cell. ex. Shiitake, it looks like that bad word, and it could be misread as that. -Your cells attacking your own cells Self/Non-self (MHC 1 and 2) These are little “tags” on the outside of the cell that identify it. Ex. ID tag. 1. MHC Class 1 -These tags on the cell are sampling the internal fluid of their cell and putting it in their tag. -Means that they belong there -All nucleated cells have Class 1 MHCs. -The none nucleated such as a Red Blood Cell does not have one. -The Class 1 MHC tells your body that that cell does belong in the body and to not destroy it. -RBCs don’t have MHC 1s because your liver and spleen need to break down and destroy the old RBCs. 2. MHC Class 2 -These tags are presenting the ripped up pathogen recently phagocytized on the surface of the cell. -When APCs “present” they use the MHC class 2 to display it. Page 3 of 3 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/28/16-9/30/16 Wonderful photos by Daisy Characters in the Immune System Chung @ Macrophage NK Cell Mast Cell Neutrophil Dendritic Cell Eosinophil Basophil Plasma Cell Helper T Cell B Cell Cytotoxic T Cell Page 1 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/28/16-9/30/16 MHC 1 and MHC 2 on cells Macrophage Dendrite Cell B cell -APC -APC -APC -BCR -MHC 1 -MHC 1 -MHC 1 -MHC 2 -MHC 2 -MHC 2 -IgD (displays antibody) Red Blood Cell -Activated B Plasma Cell -No MCH 1 or 2 -Activated B cells cells make make these these -Produces antibodies -BCR -MHC 1 -MHC 1 HIV takes over CD4 and CD8’s. Helper T Cells Cytotoxic T Cell -TCR -TCR -MHC 1 -MHC 1 -MHC 2 -MHC 2 -CD4 -TCR -Releases -CD8 (I remember interleukins and the 8 for hate the cell cytokines to it kills) stimulate other -Destroys infected cells cells via apoptosis Natural - Normal w/o doctors Artificial - with doctor They give you a weak disease, so you’ll be immune later You got antibodies from mom (placenta or milk) Page 2 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/28/16-9/30/16 Activation of Helper T Cells 1. Naive helper T cell has an empty T Cell Receptor, and looks for antigen to fill it. 2. An Antigen Present Cell has just engulfed the pathogen and displayed the antigen on the outside. 3. When the APC bumps into the helper T Cell Receptor they connect. 4. CD4 arm clamps down and strengthens that bond. 5. This activates the naive helper T cell and it releases the “alarm chemical” interleukin. 6. This stimulates the cloning of the helper T cells. Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells 1. Naive cytotoxic has a empty TCR looking for antigen. 2. APC is displaying the antigen and looking for the cytotoxic T cell. 3. They bump into each other and they latch on. 4. CD8 latches on to enforce the bond. 5. Cytotoxic T cells clone 6. And now activated, they can go about killing the infected cell by the perforins and granzymes. Page 3 of 5 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/28/16-9/30/16 Activation of B cells 1. B cell bind free antigen 2. B cell engulfs antigen and presents it to a T helper cell 3. Activated helper T cell releases interleukin 4. B cell proliferates into memory B cells and plasma. 5. Plasma cells make the Antibodies Antibodies and their functions -Are the handcuffs Arm is the variable Tale is the constant At surface Displays antibodies at B cells Triggers Mast cells. E’s attack to Mast cells. Will cause edema 2nd time Gobs and gobs Monsters and mass production. Replaced by IgG’s. Help with agglutination (form clot). IgG IgM Immunoglobulin - functional name IgA - At surface IgD Gamma globulin - chemical name IgE You can remember this Page 4 of 5 by the acronym God made A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 9/28/16-9/30/16 Where Lymphocytes are made T Cells and “educated” -T cells are made in the Thymus and they leave as a Naive T Cell. -B cells are made in the bone marrow and educated there. That education is called immunocompetence. It leaves as a Naive B cell. -The “education” is where they have to be tested and learn the 1 antigen determinant. - Naive cells become activated when they bump into their antigen. That first time bump is called an antigen challenge. APC cells Are cells that eat the pathogen and present it on it’s surface. 1. Dendrite cells 2. Macrophage 3. B cells How do they eat? -Encounter -Attack -Engulf -Process -Present Primary and Secondary Response 1. B cells bump into antigen 1st day -Lag peak 10th day 2. Launch in immediately - Peak is in 2-3 days. Could remain for weeks and months. Page 5 of 5


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