History of Rock and Roll
History of Rock and Roll Music 170
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Reiff on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 170 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Maxwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see History of Rock and Roll in Music at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Thursday, September 29, 2016 11:08 PM 10:56 AM 1920's shaped by World War I Horrific devastation • Armored Vehicles • Poison gas • Soldiers on horseback armed with swords 10 million soldier killed (100,000 Americans killed) Radical art movements arose in reaction to global political upheaval • Literature • Dance • Music Rock around the Clock 1955-#1 in charts- 16 weeks War will shape music/our country Emergence of Jazz in America - New Style based on large ensembles ○ Louis Armstrong ○ Duke Ellington ○ Glenn Miller - Inspired a sense of free spirited attitude ○ Strong rhythms ○ Jagged melodies ○ Big sound "Big sense of attitude." "Go for attitude." Choose a concert and write a review --Oakridge boys --Lyle Lovvett --Beatles tribute --Pat Batheney --Sisters of Sound, Just behind Starbucks - Sometimes concerts - Country --Oakridge boys --Lyle Lovvett --Beatles tribute --Pat Batheney --Sisters of Sound, Just behind Starbucks - Sometimes concerts - Country Rock and Roll - - Hip Hop - Pop NO JAZZ GROUPS At least 45 minutes 1930's Shaped by the stock market crash of 1929 - 1930 26,000 businesses failed - By 1932 25% jobless rate forced families into shantytowns - Depression was both economic and psychological ***Big time storage rate w/ that generation - Grandparents *** Depression mind se -tUse it until you can't 1940s shaped by World War II - American soldiers returned in triumph - G.I Bill allowed highest college enrollment ever ○ "Boom" in birth rate ("Baby Boomers" Children born in the 1950's) Children in the 1950s would have more allowance money to spend on rock and - roll ***United States comes back to parades/parties/ceremonies -------- European Soldiers came home to devastation College became a thing Merged in the 1950s What was happening with Popular music at that time Country music/western The Blues Watched the Most controversial video, Elvis kicked off televis-onhey wouldn't show his hips-Too sexual, Hip thrusts, People petitioned to have him back on television. Called "Elvis the Pelvis"- Newspaper the next day :You ain't nothin but a hound dog: - About sex, - a dog in heat, - originally a girl singing to a guy, but he turned it around Called "Elvis the Pelvis"- Newspaper the next day :You ain't nothin but a hound dog: - About sex, - a dog in heat, - originally a girl singing to a guy, but he turned it around - Guy singing to a girl - In the video, he slowed it down --- Made it even more sexual. - #1 thing on the list for teachers in 195ksids sticking gum on the bottom of the seats - First time he performed on television without a guitar on him - Songs about sex- teens loved that-parents hated IT Broadcasting went national Affiliates were established across the nation - - Sports became popular - No one had money so radio was the go to - Baseball popular to listen to on radio Musician Unions were very powerful - Protected the musicians Many programs on the radio, decided to put their emphasis on television - Created a void in radio - Left a ton of space on radio - Many people left radio Started buying airwaves- to target audience, still listening Late 40s early 50swhen people started buying records recreationally - They weren't ready for any recording industry, so they sold sheet music - Called it "Tin Pan Alley" ○ Have small rooms with 1 piano, person sat there all day long and wrote songs ○ If you go to NY in the summer time - hot and muggy--IN the alley ways in the back, windows were opened, pianos out of tune ○ If you walked down the alley, sounded like rain was falling on tin pans ○ Became a practice- Irving Berlin wrote God Bless America ○ If you go to NY in the summer time - hot and muggy--IN the alley ways in the back, windows were opened, pianos out of tune ○ If you walked down the alley, sounded like rain was falling on tin pans ○ Became a practice- Irving Berlin wrote God Bless America - 1968 video made of him singing Publishing house didn't care who sang the songs, just wanted people to buy it. - Wanted more and more people to sing the songs. A lot of musicals transferred from Broadway to the movies. - More like a variety performance Speak easy clubs - Alcohol - Jazz music ○ Speak easy down town-4 Olives underground. - Only way to get alcohol Jazz becomes so powerful to people because a way to express things. - Many slaves regularly sing their emotions/feelings out Watched 12 Years a Slave clip. - Slaves sing to express themselves. - Get out emotions - Roll Jordan Roll ** watched Benny Goodma- nSing Sing Sing Big Bands did great during the 30s - 1945 jobs were cut back cause of records on the radio. Years are when they charted. *Listens to Swinging on a Star by Bing Crosby. - Called Crooners cause of how they scooped the notes. - Predecessors of the Doo -Wop *Listens to Swinging on a Star by Bing Crosby. - Called Crooners cause of how they scooped the notes. - Predecessors of the Doo -Wop *watches Lawrence Welks clip of the Mill Brothers - Sinatra didn't write a single thing he sang How much is that doggie in the Window (1953) - Patti Page - Death by Sugar Parents wouldn't let their children listen to jazz - Not wholesome Ch. 1: The World Before Rock and Roll - Celtic music influenced some genres - Eclectic mix - African-American influence - Things happened quickly Elvis Presley on television 1956 - Controversy ○ Grinding hips and suggestive singing on Milton Berle's Show ○ Protest from adult viewers fueled their teenage children's interest ○ Clear indication that rock and roll was specifically intended for teenagers. - Importance of Preseley's performance on national television ○ Instant credibility ○ Reaction (good and bad) was on a large scal- "No such thing as bad publicity" ○ Immediate exposure to vast segment of American society The world of mainstream pop before 1955 - National versus regional ○ Early post-nineteenth century American culture was regional § People were conditioned by immediate surroundings § Less travel § Less access to national and world news § Didn't hear sounds of music from across the US - Popular music styles were associated with geographic regions - Rock and roll has roots in three styles of music ○ Mainstream popular music ○ Rhythm and blues § Less access to national and world news § Didn't hear sounds of music from across the US - Popular music styles were associated with geographic regions - Rock and roll has roots in three styles of music ○ Mainstream popular music ○ Rhythm and blues ○ Country and western Emergence of large -scale entertainment media - Radio was only regional until 1928 - A lot of people were illiterate NBC went "Coast to Coast" in 1928 with a national radio network - 1930s and 1940s were a golden agefor motion pictures - Music was an important part of motion pictures - Motion pictures played to audiences across the country - Different experience in each theatre - Modern movies added music 1930s--1940s national network programming made some pop styles more national than others - Target audience was middle class The rise of radio networks in the 1920s - Up until 1945 recoreds were not played on radio ○ Considered unethical--that the station was trying to fool the listeners ○ Was a positive environment for musician-s- more work for them. - Wide spectrum of network shows broadcast during the 1930s and 1940s ○ "Soap Operas"- All sponsored by soap, drama, cliffhangers § The Guiding Light( Began in 1937) § Lone Ranger Television was introduced in the late 1940s - Corporate money and interst shifted from radio to television - Many long long-running radio series moved to television - Teleision grew, radio audiences diminished ○ Local and regional radio eecutives became creatively entreprenual The rise of radio networks in the 1920s - Top 40 radio format was 1st tried in Omaha - By Todd Storz - Teleision grew, radio audiences diminished ○ Local and regional radio eecutives became creatively entreprenual The rise of radio networks in the 1920s Top 40 radio format was 1st tried in Omaha - - By Todd Storz Tin Pan Alley and the sheet music publishing industry - IT was an area in New York City with a high concentration of music publishing companies - First half of twentieth century, sheet music was the principal way to sell music. - People bought sheet music first, Put on piano, and then all sing. - Or… Local jazz band/big band group would play the charts. - Thousands of songs written by proessional songwriters ○ Irving Berlin ○ Cole Porter ○ George and Ira Gershwin ○ Jerome Kern - Biggest hits in the 1930's "God Bless America" August 26 Tin Pan Alley era focused on marketing the song itself - The goal was to get as many different singers as possible to record the song their own way - The more versions, the more royalties for the songwriter and the publisher. Singers and Big Bands - Big bands were dance bands that included: ○ Rhythm section of bass, drums, piano, and guitar. ○ Horn sections of trumpets, trombones, and saxophones. - Music transitions to the blues ○ many songs bible based. - A lot of jazz based out of New Orleans ○ Brought by Louis Armstrong ○ Eventually travelled to New York ○ A lot of people hated him cause he was so good. - By 1930s, radio spread out across the country ○ Big Band Music came out - Big Bands 15-40ish people ○ ○ These were the rock stars ○ Most of it was About the musci not the singers ○ Big Band Music came out - Big Bands ○ 15-40ish people ○ These were the rock stars ○ Most of it was About the musci not the singers - Big bands were led by permanent leaders who were instrumentalists ○ Benny Goodman ○ Tommy/Jimmy Dorsey ○ Glenn Miller - Singers were merely featured soloists --intended to add some variety to the act. - Bing Crosby Most important pop singer of 1930s and 1940s - - Relaxed crooning style generated a string of hit recordings § "Swinging on a Star" (1944) § "White Christmas" (1942) and (1945) - Had a successful film action career. - The Mills Brothers § Like Andres Sisters, their style awas built on harmony vocal arrangements □ "Tiger Rag" (1931) □ "Paper Doll" (1943) □ "You Always Hurt the One You Love" (1944) § Both groups' singing style foreshadowed 1950s doo -wop and 1960s girl groups - Frank Sinatra § Lke Bing Crosby, he broke away from being a big band featured singer and went solo Established the singer as the star of the show, setting the stage for § future rock singers § A great example of his singing style is "I've Got a Crush on You" (1948) (I've Got You Under My Skin) Big Band era ended at the end of the 1940s due to financial hardships--too costly an enterprise. Tin Pan Alley supplied songs to singers backed by smaller combo bands until 1955. Pop Music in the early 1950s - Singer is out front of the music -- solo vocalist with instrumental background Tin Pan Alley supplied songs to singers backed by smaller combo bands until 1955. Pop Music in the early 1950s Singer is out front of the music -- solo vocalist with instrumental background - - Wholesome songs are meant for family audience: Children, their parents, and grandparents - Les Paul and wife, Mary Ford introduced the solid body electric guitar to their vocal duo style. - "I'm Sittin' on Top of the World" (1953). Country and Western Music: Jenna- Jenna98@ksu.edu Monday, August 29, 2016 10:29 AM Two distinct regional styles until the late 1940s - Nashville became the center for recording this type of music in the late 1940s. - "Country" music was found in southeast and Appalachia - "hillbilly music" Early examples - The Carter Familye xemplify this early regional sty-l-einfluenced by white gospel music - Roy Acuff and His Crazy Tennesseans ○ Included slide guitar in their sound One of the most popular performers of his time ○ ○ Nazi Germany was using this as bad propaganda against the United States - "Western" music in 1920s-30s, California and southwest ○ Connection with Hollywood movies about cowboys ○ Gene Autrywas the first of the "singing cowboy movie stars § Turned in to musicals § Would sing as they chase the bad guys - "Jimmie Rodgers": the first country music star ○ He was to country music what Gene Autry was to western music ○ Jimmie Rodgers's singing style was imitated by subsequent country and western singers ○ The Jimmie Rodgers image became the model for country and western artists - Superstation broadcasts of country western music ○ He was to country music what Gene Autry was to western music ○ Jimmie Rodgers's singing style was imitated by subsequent country and western singers ○ The Jimmie Rodgers image became the model for country and western artists - Superstation broadcasts of country western music ○ Atlanta ○ Ft. worth ○ Nashville § Launched theG rand Ole Opryi 1925 ○ Chicago broadcast the National - Country Music during WWII ○ Soldiers stationed together shared music interest -- especially country and Western music ○ Country and Western music became the most popular style among the Armed Forces ○ Southerners immigrated north after the war to - Business enterprises began moving there in the 1940 - Influence largely due to the impact of the Grand Ole Opry show - Acuff-Rose - Hank Williams - The personification of the 1950s Country country and western western music § First important recording was a Tin Pan Alley song, § "Lovesick Blues" - Joined the ranks of regulars on the Grand Ole Opry in 1949 - Sometimes considered Honky-Tonk - Singing Style § Extensive vocal inflections sounded like sincere emotional expressions § Lyrics are direst and simple- common conversational vocab - Bluegrass music and Bill Monroe and His Blue Grass Boys - Developed by Bill Monroe and His Blue Grass Boys during Post po- st WII period § Billl Monroe: mandolin and high vocal harmony § Robert "Chubby" wise: fiddler § Lester Flatt: acoustic guitar and lead vocal § Earl Scruggs: banjo - Bluegrass - First performed on the Grand Ole Opry in 1939 -gained more popularity in the 1940s - Virtuosic instrumental aspects of the music overshadow vocals - Earl Scruggs developed a new technique called "three finger roll" § Earl Scruggs: banjo - Bluegrass - First performed on the Grand Ole Opry in 1939 -gained more popularity in the 1940s Virtuosic instrumental aspects of the music overshadow vocals - - Earl Scruggs developed a new technique called "three finger roll" - Allowed for much more complex passages - Elevated the banjo to new heights of virtuosic technique - Inspired generations of musicians to follow his example - HELLA FAST PICKING Thought of as the folk music in its time - Vast majority of people lived in an agricultural area - Only 10% ish lived in the cities - By the 1920s, many people flocked to cities to get jobs - "pop" music was someone who played the fiddle, washboard, spoons - Part of local community - Different set up for the type of music happening - Center places began to record sounds of music - 1940s the television started to grow - By 50s most people had access to TV Some people would travel and record people in different environments - - Country and Western music are DIFFERENT - --Rose Formed country Tin Pan Alley ○ Helped Hank Williams get their start. - Watched Carter Family ○ "Hillbilly" music § Will the Circle Be Unbroken - This was their pop music - If lived in Nashville or outside of their, this was what you were hearing. ○ Carter Family became top act ○ June Carter was their Daughter § Married johnny Cash - Really exploded during 1940s during WWII - The sales of records exploded in the 1950s - Jimmie Rodgers- ○ Had Yodel stuff to his music. - Listened to Jimmie Rodgers ○ T for Texas ○ Covered by Lynyrd Skynyrd - Jimmie Rodgers- ○ Had Yodel stuff to his music. - Listened to Jimmie Rodgers ○ T for Texas ○ Covered by Lynyrd Skynyrd - Became a regular on Grand Ole Opry - Hank Williams became a regular on the G(O)(O) by the 40s Soon Rockabilly develops out of this. Blues: Wednesday, August 31, 2016 10:30 AM Rural (delta blues) and urban (rhythm and blues) - Beginning of the blues Born in the Mississippi Delta ○ ○ Often AAB style (simple) ○ Post Post-WWI sheet music by W.C. Handy was sold nationally § "Memphis Blues" § "St. Louis Blues" ○ Recordings by singer Bessie Smith § "Down Hearted Blues" § Sold a million copies in 1923 (certified gold!) Jazz become the music to dance to in speak easy clubs Eric Clapton begins to play "Cross Roads Blues" Listened to Jordan and his tympany five "Is you is or is you ain't my baby" Listened to Muddy Waters Musi- cB B King Big Joe Turner-Shake, Rattle, and Roll Delta (rural) BlueS ometimes Called Country Blues - Robert Johnson ○ Enormous influence on rock guitarists of the 1960s ○ Sang and accompanied himself on guitar ○ Related attitude toward meter and harmonic structure ○ Extremely emotional vocal style ○ His "Cross Roads Blues" (1936) is an excellent example of his style. - Urban Blues ○ Enormous influence on rock guitarists of the 1960s ○ Sang and accompanied himself on guitar ○ Related attitude toward meter and harmonic structure ○ Extremely emotional vocal style ○ His "Cross Roads Blues" (1936) is an excellent example of his style. - Urban Blues ○ Blues musicians moved to cities and formed combos § They used microphones to amplify the vocals § More organized structure because more than one person was involved ○ By the early 50s Chicago was the center of electric blues ○ Records didnot circulate far from the city where they were recorded. - Jump Blues ○ Louis Jordan and the Tymmpani Five ○ Sax player and singer § Some of his songs became popular on the pop charts § "GI Jive" (1944) § "Caldonia Boogie" (1945) "Choo Choo Ch'boogie" (1946) § ○ The Jordan approach to blues § Dance tempos and rhythms found in big band § Reduced instrumentation - Blues and the music business (continued) ○ Balck audiences grew in urban areas during the 1940s § Creating a market in cities for radio stations playing music that black liked § Creating a market in cities for products that blacks like § Informing blacks of advertisers that wanted their business § Due to racial segregation in those times, that was helpful information ○ Because it was broadcast, white listeners (particularly teens) could hear it too. - Post Post-WWII Independent Record record Labels ○ Independent record labels opened specializing in rhythm and blues § Sun Records in Memphis § Chess records in Chicago § King Records in Cincinnati § Atlantic records in New York City ○ Independent record labels were small operations § Not capable of national disribution Capitalized on major labels' lack of interest in black music § § Radio capitalized on television's lack of interest in black music § Radio and independent labels supported each other. ○ Major Labels ○ Independent record labels were small operations § Not capable of national disribution § Capitalized on major labels' lack of interest in black music § Radio capitalized on television's lack of interest in black music § Radio and independent labels supported each other. ○ Major Labels § Decca § Columbia § Rca-Victor § Mercury § Capitol § MGM - Chess Records in Chicago ○ Founded in 1947 by Caucasian blues fans Phil and Leonard Ches ○ Low-budget facilities and equipment ○ Specialied in solo singers backed by small electric bands § "Howlin' Wolf: "Evil" (1954) § Muddy Waters § John Lee Hooker Little Walter § ○ Rough edged emotion, expressive vocals, unpolished production ○ Instrumental ○ Impression conveyed was simple honesty ○ Adult-Oriented lyrics ○ Style of Chicago electric blues - Atlantic Records Black Pop ○ Founded in 1948 by (white blues fans) Ahmet Ertegun - Singers were technically more polished ○ Ruth Brown ○ Big Joe Turner ○ Clyde McPhatter ○ Ray Charles - Arrangements were more structured and controlled Less emphasis on instrumental solos. - Big Joe Turner- - Doo-Wop: Urban Vocal Music ○ Began with competing street singers in urban neighborhoods ○ Couldn't afford instruments so songs were sung a Capella ○ Doo-woop refers to nonsense syllable in the vocal arrangement ○ Important groups and songs in this style include: § Chords: "Sh-Boom"( 1954) § The Five Satins: "In the Still of the Night" (1956) □ Still covered today - The Platters was on eof the mos successful vocal groups ○ Doo-woop refers to nonsense syllable in the vocal arrangement ○ Important groups and songs in this style include: Chords: "Sh-Boom"( 1954) § § The Five Satins: "In the Still of the Night" (1956) □ Still covered today - The Platters was on eof the mos successful vocal groups § "Only You (and You Alone)" (rl p5, 1955) § "The Great Pretender" (rl p1, 1955) § "My Prayer" (r1 p1, 1956) § "Twilight Time" (rl pl, 1958) § "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes" (r3 p1, 1958) - Gospel Music Influence ○ Southern blacks learned to sing in church ○ Harmony ideas derived from gospel music ○ Sacred song lyrics sometimes into smaller bands
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