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Chapter 5 notes

by: Tyler Notetaker

Chapter 5 notes Psych 1000

Tyler Notetaker

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These notes are from chapter 5 readings and class lectures. Ive included key terms and pictures.
Psychology 1000
Dennis Miller
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Psychology 1000 in Psychology at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
Psychology 2 ndexam notes Chapter 5 Sensation- the detection of external stimuli and the transmission of this info to the brain Perception -the processing, interpretation, and organization of sensory signals Bottom-up processing- perception based on the physical features of the stimuli Top-down processing- how knowledge expectations or past experiences shape the interpretation of sensory information (what we expect to see) Sensory coding- when our sensory system translates physical properties of stimuli into patterns of neural impulses. (when a hot pan touches your hand the neurons in the hand sense pain, but the brain cant process this directly so it must be translated this process is called……. ) Transduction – sensory signals are converted to signals the brain can interpret Sensory receptors – receive physical or chemical stimulations  Qualitative info- the most basic qualities of the stimulus  Quantitative info- the degree or magnitude of those qualities Absolute threshold- the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation Difference threshold- the smallest difference between two stimuli that you can notice. (how much does the television volume need to change for you to notice?) Signal detection theory  Either you detect something or you don’t  Unambiguous  Hit- if the signal is present and the participant detects it  Miss- if the signal is present and the participant doesn’t detect it  False alarm – if the signal is not present and the participant detects it  Correct rejection – if the single is not present and the participant does not detect it sensory adaptation – becoming less aware of sensory stimuli/ getting used to/ adapting to senses Primary sensory areas How can we see?  Very little of what we call seeing takes place in the eyes  Light first passes through the cornea (thick transparent outer layer)  Then goes to the lens where its bent further inward to reach the….  Retina- the thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball where the image is formed  The pupil- dark circle in the center of the eye that the small opening to the lens  The iris – the colored part of the eye. That determines the pupils size. Behind the iris muscle contract to determine the shape of the lens. Flatten to focus on distant objects and thickens to focus on closer objects  Rods- respond at extremely low levels of light and are for night vision. Don’t respond to color or fine detail  Cones- cells that respond to higher levels of light  Fovea – the center of the retina where cones are densely packed How we see color  We can distinguish millions of shades of color by their wave lengths  Color is always a product of our visual system  Trichromatic theory- color vision results from activity in three different types of cones (blue-violet lights, yellow- green light, and red-orange lights)  Opponent process theory- when see stare at opponent colors (red and green) we can see the colors opponent after staring for a long period of time  Color , hue (how orangey a orange color is), saturation(the purity of colors), and brightness (intensity)  Proximity- the closer two figures are to each other the more likely we are to group them as part of the same object  Similarity- we tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other; whether shape color or orientation  Continuity- when we tend to group together edges or contours that have the same orientation  Closure- when we tend to complete figures that have gaps  Illusory contours- when we sometimes perceive contours and cues to depth even when they don’t exist Face perception  We can recognize moods, attentiveness, sex, race, and age by a person’s face  Prosopagnosia – the inability to recognize faces  Fusiform gyrus- the part of the brain associated with facial recognition  Binocular depth cues- cues of depth perception that arise from the fact that people have two eyes  Monocular depth cues –cues of depth perception that are available to each eye alone  Binocular disparity- a depth cue; because of the distance between the two eyes; each eye receives a slightly different retinal image.  Convergence – the way the muscles in the eyes turn toward each other to see nearby objects Illusions Object constancy- correctly perceiving objects as constant in their shape, size, color, and lightness, despite raw sensory data that could mislead perception. How are we able to hear?  Audition- hearing; the sense of sound perception  The process of hearing begins when the movement and vibrations of objects cause the displacement of air molecules.  Sound wave - a pattern of changes in air pressure during a period of time; it produces the percept of a sound.  Amplitude- the loudness of a sound wave  Frequency- the pitch of a sound wave  Hertz- the frequency of a sound measured in vibrations per second  Vibrations travel to the outer ear and into the auditory canal down to the eardrum- a thin membrane that marks the beginning of the middle ear; sound waved cause it to vibrate.  The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate and then transfer to the ossicles- tiny bones called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.  Then the ossicles travel the vibrations to the oval window- a membrane in the cochlea- a fluid like tube in the shape of a snail.  In the center of the cochlea is the basilar membrane- which oscillates and stimulates hair cells to bend and send info to the auditory nerve.  Auditory neurons in the thalamus extend their axons to the primary auditory cortex, located in the temporal lobe.  Vestibular sense- uses info from receptors in the semicircular canals in the inner ear. Relies on the ears to help us maintain balance.  Temporal coding- a mechanism for encoding low frequency auditory stimuli in which the firing rates of cochlear hair cells match the frequency of the sound wave.  Place coding – a mechanism for encoding high frequency auditory stimuli in which the frequency of the sound wave is encoded by the location of the hair cells along the basilar membrane. How are we able to taste  Gustation- the sense of taste  Taste buds- sensory organs in the mouth that contain the receptors for taste. Mostly on the tongue in mushroom shapes called papillae but are throughout the mouth in throat  When food or liquid hits this taste bud they send signals to the thalamus then the frontal lobe which produces taste.  5 basic taste: sweet, sour, salty , bitter, and umami (savory).  Culture can influence taste preference How are we able to hear?  Olfaction- the sense of smell  Olfactory epithelium- a thin layer of tissue, within the nasal cavity that contains the receptors for smell. Hold many different receptors responsible for a different smell  Humans can discriminate 1 trillion odorants  Olfactory bulb – the brain center for smell, located below the frontal lobe. From the olfactory lobe smell info goes to different areas of the brain. How are we able to feel touch and pain  Haptic sense- the sense of touch. Also delivers a sense of where our limbs are in space.  Kinesthetic sense- perception of the position in space and movement of our bodies and our limbs  The skin contains sensory receptors that provide tactical stimulation  skin is the largest organ for sensory reception because of its large surface.  For temperature the skin has receptors for warmth and for cold  Touch info travels to the thalamus to the primary somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe.  There are two types of pain all throughout the body and skin fast fibers (for sharp fast pain) and slow fibers (for chronic, dull, and steady pain)  Gate control theory- theory saying that we experience pain when receptors are activated and the neural “gate” in the spinal cord allows the signals through to the brain Chapter 6 How does operant conditioning change behavior?  Stimulus learning – stimulus  Classical conditioning – S-S  Operant [instrumental conditioning] - the outcome from a response determines the likelihood that it will be performed In the future.  Operant (aka “skinner” ) box  Behavioral modification – use of an operant conditioning techniques to change behavior 1. Reinforcement- increases probability of a behavior  Primary reinforcers- satisfy biological needs  Secondary reinforcers- established through classical conditioning  Premack principle- opportunity to perform a behavior 2. Punishment – decrease probability of a behavior


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