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Chapter 2 Class Notes

by: William Kenyon

Chapter 2 Class Notes HIST 101

William Kenyon
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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Chapter 2 notes for Exam 1
World Civilizations I
Jordan Begnaud
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Kenyon on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Jordan Begnaud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations I in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/29/16
Chapter 2 The Urban Revolution and Ancient Mesopotamia  Technological Innovations that contributed to the Rise and Success of Early Cities o Irrigation o Plows o Metalwork­ Bronze becomes the material of choice o Wheels o Writing­ These systems emerged as a way to keep track of trade, which in turn  allowed an expansion of the scale of trade networks  Sumerian battle cart   Many cities were built around Ziggurats o Shows that life was centered around religion  “Town square” and trading market and richer people lived closer to the center of the city  Cities were surrounded by big walls for protection  Giving gifts to the Gods set up for a big economy in the center of the city within the  “market” areas  Writing   o Allowed for more communication within the people of their city and one’s  surrounding o Started off as pictographs, to ideograms, to phonetic symbols  Sumerian Spirituality o Polytheism o Each God oversees a different aspect of life o Many sacrifices were made for their “scary” Gods o Priests were supposedly the middleman between the city down on earth and the  Gods up above in the heavens  Social Hierarchy o KingPriestsBureaucrats, army officers, scribesFree people: farmers, artisans,  small merchantsDependent workers (largest group: not slaves, but relied on  employers for livelihood) and slaves (lowest group in the pecking order)  Sumerian society gave us math and astronomy o Used a system of weights and measures broken into 60 parts which is why we still have 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour  Epic of Gilgamesh o Written down after thousands of years and has multiple different versions of the  story o Religious rules and Godly rule was much stronger in urban areas rather than rural  societies  Rural societies still had a sense of the rules, just went about them  differently  o Urban societies relied more on rural societies  Rural peoples were much more independent than urban people o Enkidu was “one with the animals and nature” until he went and had sex with the  harlots and having bread and wine, then he was “strong enough” to face  Gilgamesh  Was basically Gilgamesh’s opposite counterpart  o The gods are responsible for creating humans  o Enkidu was created out of clay by the gods to challenge Gilgamesh to even him  out and control the society o In this story it is 6 days and 6 nights where the story of Noah is 40 days and 40  nights o Enkidu’s attachment with animals just as Noah was with all of the animals o In Gilgamesh the flood was due to “letting the gods sleep” o Sending of the raven and the dove to find dry land o


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