Bio 152 Week 6 Notes
Bio 152 Week 6 Notes Bio 152
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vania Notetaker on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 152 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Alaina Campbell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Science II in Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
Bio 152 Week 6 Notes Cyanobacteria- capable of oxygenic photosynthesis *no cell differentiation Anabaena- long and short cells Aphanotheco- small single cell Chroococcus- envelope made of polysaccharides Osillatoria *Life originated in a hot environ.= Archaea *In extreme temps. There’s no competition for resources (Archaea) Prokaryotes have coevolved with eukaryotes -Soybean and nitrogen fixing bacteria *Mutual relationship (provides plant with nitrogen) -Cows and methanogenic archaeons/clams and methane-oxidizing bacteria (breakdown food cows eat) -Squid and bioluminescent bacteria Human Micro biome *Fecal transplant = fight obesity Eukaryotic cells -Internal parts of cells become more complex Origin Symbiont and symbiosis (mutual benefiting relationship between two organisms) -Endosymbiosis (living inside another organism) -- > Origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria Endosymbiotic hypothesis Similarities between chloroplast and mitochondria + cyanobacteria -Membrane organization (2 membrane) -One membrane would be of the engulfed cyanobacteria -Biochemistry of photosynthesis (2 photosystems) -Chloroplast and mitochondria have circular DNA * Sequence similar to that of a bacteria’s *A lot of its original genes migrated to the nucleus of cell Symbiosis of heterotropic host and photosynthetic cell common in eukaryotic domain *Chloroplast origin believed to happen in green than red algae Hypothesis extends to mitochondria -Engulfed proteobacteria.. Mitochondria -- > Organized and biochemistry -- > Has its own DNA (migrates to the cells nucleus) **At some point all eukaryotic cells had a mitochondria, though some are changed (hydrogeneosomes or mitosomes for anaerobic processes) Eukaryotes are a mix of genes Hypothesis 1 Archaea-like prokaryotes engulf a proteobacteria and overtime becomes part of the organism (All organelles formed first) Hypothesis 2 Engulfs proteobacteria by Achaean and then organelles form while proteobacteria becomes an organelles in the cell
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