PS 100 Textbook Notes -Chapter 12: Physical Properties of Matter
PS 100 Textbook Notes -Chapter 12: Physical Properties of Matter PSY S 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by wisegirl465 on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY S 100 at Brigham Young University taught by Dr. Hirschmann in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Physical Science in Physical Science at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/29/16
PS 100 Textbook Ch. 12 Notes 12.1: States of Matter Matter can exist in four states: solid, liquid, gas, or plasma Solid: rigid, fixed volume and shape ex: ice, wood, steel, cloth, paper, etc. Liquid: not rigid; changes shape to match container but resists changes in volume Gas: neither rigid nor fixed volume; both change readily to match its container By changing conditions like temperature and pressure, matter will change forms. Ex: water becomes solid (ice) at or below 32 degrees F. Pressure is then required to crush the ice (change its volume). Fourth state of matter: plasma, which is actually the most common in the universe Plasma: a gas of negatively and positively charged particles Ex: northern lights, plasma TVs Some materials do not fall cleanly into any particular state of matter (silly putty, jello are between solid and liquid) 12.2: Temperature and Changes in Size Water changes forms in the middle of the temperature range Helium has no melting point Only known substance that does not form a solid by cooling; as to also be subjected to high pressure Only elements can form plasmas Hypotheses About Matter: 1) Temperature and the strength of the force holding bits of matter together in a certain state are related 2) Matter whose particles are held together strongly in a solid state will melt at a higher temperature than one with weaker force between particles. Predictions About Matter 1) Table salt, gold, and copper are held together by stronger forces than water or ethanol 2) Water and ethanol boil at higher temperature than gases like helium or neon because they are held together by stronger forces than helium and neon 12.3: Density Density = mass/volume Large changes in density occur when a material undergoes a change of state Matter is denser as a solid than a liquid, and much denser as a liquid than as a gas Metals have the highest densities and high melting points; low densities have low melting points Water is the exception: ice is actually less dense than water Materials in any state retain their nature How many protons they have and what element they are never changes; the atoms are just arranged differently Solids packed closest together, gases farthest apart 12.4: Responses of Matter to Forces Compression forces: “pushing” forces – tend to reduce the volume of an object Tension forces: “pulling” forces – tend to stretch an object, increasing its length Shear forces: “twisting” forces – distort the shape of an object Solids can sustain or support all three types of forces (resists the force applied) Liquids can sustain or support all three types of forces Gases only sustain compression forces 12.5: Color Colors when combined together create what we perceive as white light The complete range of colors or frequencies is the Electromagnetic Spectrum The human eye only sees colors between red and violet; some creatures can see “below” red (infrared light) or “above” violet (ultraviolet light). Overall color of an object depends on the portions of the spectrum that an object absorbs or reflects The color we see is the reflected light based on the pigmentation of other colors in the object related to internal structure of a specific object All materials give off light when heated to high temperatures The spectrum of each material is distinctive and can be used to identify it 12.6: Electrical Conductivity “What materials conduct electricity?” Conductors Metals in a solid or liquid state Some materials do when liquid or dissolved in water, but not as a solid (ionic conductors A material that does not conduct electricity in any state of matter is known as a non conductor 12.7: Continuous Models of Matter Answer “why” questions about matter We need models to explain properties Start with the simplest model (Occam’s Razor) – continuous models state that matter has no internal structure (not true) Molecular model of matter better explain properties seen in this chapter
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