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Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes - Week 1

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by: Emily Faulconer

Bio 132 - Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes - Week 1 132

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > 132 > Bio 132 Intro to Animal Behavior Lecture and book notes Week 1
Emily Faulconer
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These notes cover week one's lectures and readings. The notes talk mostly about natural selection and the processes of natural selection, the history of the study of animal behavior, and the ideas ...
Intro to animal behavior
Debbie Schlenoff
Class Notes
Adaptation, Biology, Bio, 132, intro, to, animal, behavior, Science, week, 1, history, Of, The, study, natural, selection, evolution




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Faulconer on Thursday September 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 132 at University of Oregon taught by Debbie Schlenoff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Intro to animal behavior in Biology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 09/29/16
This package of notes will include the lectures from Monday and Wednesday from Week 1, as well as book notes from the assigned readings. Disclaimer: The book notes will be minimalist, and you will need a textbook as I am avoiding any possibility of perjury. My focus will be to act as a guideline for your own reading. Biology 132 Lecture Notes 1 – 9/26/16 Age of the study of animal behavior - Recorded to at least the 60’s (Nobel prize winner) - Early hominids (cave paintings of animals in France) - Multiple reasons to study animal behavior described below. Why study Animal Behavior? - Practical reasons and applications o Class described several reasons such as  To eat and avoid being eaten  How to survive the environment  To find resources  For animal welfare - Applications o Research on animals leads to advancements in technology. Examples listed below.  Examination of lizard abilities to crawl on walls for robot tech  Bone-fusing adhesive research from sandcastle worms  Elephant trunk-based robot arm - Conservation o Help the natural world to function, mostly via helping endangered species. This can only be achieved by understanding those species’ behavior as demonstrated by the below example.  Attempt to help the California condor resulted in birds being unable to mate because they had imprinted on humans. Researchers adapted by recognizing that the birds imprint to who feeds them, so they disguised their feeders to look like birds. - Inherent Interest o That’s a no brainer. - Help us to understand ourselves o Research of apes to understand social behaviors o Research of dolphins who call each other by names like we do. Two main categories of behavioral explanation - Proximate explanation – How it does that? - Ultimate Explanation -- Why it does that? Four sub-categories of behavioral explanation Proximate Sub-categories - Immediate Causation: Anatomically explains how some behavior is happening, or presents some environmentally triggering reason. - Developmental: Change with age or experience? Learning and age questions. Ultimate Sub-categories - Evolutionary History: Explanations based on shared ancestry - Functional: Beneficial reproductive consequences. The adaptive significance of a trait. --------------------------------------------------------------- *-------------------------------------------------------------- Biology 132 – Book notes 1 9/27/16 Words of note that have definitions in the text book. I will not define all of these words as some of them are rather well known already - Evolution (p. 58) - Artificial selection (p. 59) - Adaptations (p. 60) - Fitness (p 60) - Macro and microevolution (p. 60) - Gene flow (p. 63) - Genetic drift (p. 65) Less well-known words of note: - Direct Fitness: number of surviving offspring that an individual produces - Indirect Fitness: helping a family member pass on similar alleles with their offspring - Stabilizing Selection: when best phenotype is the average in a population. Phenotype is unlikely to shift - Negative-assortative mating v. Frequency-dependent reproduction: Frequency-dependent reproduction mating has to do with females in a population choosing males based on the rarity of their phenotype rather than males with a more familiar trait. Negative-assortative mating has to do with females choosing males that have different phenotypes from their own traits, whether or not those traits are common or rare. - “Pure” evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS): an adaptive strategy that has been nearly adopted by all members of the population and cannot be beaten in survival and reproductive efficiency - “Mixed” ESS: Several different successful adaptive behavior strategies that combat each other and form an equilibrium in behaviors in a population Notes of import in the text: - Pidgeon breeding was one of Darwin’s inspirations for the idea of evolution (as we know it today) - He was pushed to publish by Alfred Russel Wallace (competitively) - The Concepts of Natural Selection o Ob. 1: There is diversity among indivs. In a population. o Ob. 2: Some diverse traits are genetically based. o Ob. 3: Among those traits are some that are more useful than others.  Overall conclusion: “Evolution must occur!” - Confusing words in the description of evolution: o Survival (also means reproduction, diet, etc) o Fittest (as in most adapted to the environment, not the most healthy or “robust”) o “For the good of the species” (not all ‘individually successful/good’ traits result in the absolute continuation of the species) - Natural selection is not the only factor in population changes Bio 132 – Lecture 2 – 9/28/16 Adaptation: “Characteristic that confers high fitness” - Usually has a ‘functional’ significance (ultimate perspective) Evolution - Change in frequency of traits - Fitness = reproductive success - Concepts of Natural Selection (again) o Note that the professor orders the concepts, Ob 1, Ob 3, Ob2 Sources of Variation - Mutation o Changes in DNA - Changes in formation of gametes (sex cells) - Recombination - Survival and reproduction are not random, but variation is - Natural variation as (typically) a bell curve Environmental factors for natural selection - Invasive species - Predators - Environmental disasters - Sexual Selection - Chain of ecosystem failures - Food - Disease - Human intervention Cost/Benefit Analysis (with the Black-head gull example) - Benefits: Less predation - Costs: Energy use, vulnerable period to cannibalism from other gulls


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