Week 5 - Chapters 2 & 3
Week 5 - Chapters 2 & 3 PHIL 1103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Dante on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1103 at Fairleigh Dickinson University taught by Dr. Louis DeBello in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Ethics in PHILOSOPHY AND HUMANITIES at Fairleigh Dickinson University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
th th September 26 , 2016/September 29 , 2016 Ethical Relativism • Invalid argument has no strength or authority • Cannot claim a non factual claim over a factual argument In a valid deductive argument, the content of the conclusion repeats, in whole or in part, the content of the premises • Man/Mortal example o William is a man o All men are mortal o William is mortal • Can’t derive a conclusion from false premises Moral Objectivism • There are objective universal moral principles, valid for all people and all social environments • Moral Absolutism – There are nonoverrideable moral principles that one ought never violate o No utterly satisfactory ethical theory • Natural Law (Pg. 32) – the view that there exists an eternal moral law that can be discovered through reason by looking at the nature of humanity and society. o First appears among the Greeks § Stoics § Cosmos – orderly, don’t need a theological component o Laws that are conducive to human flourishing and relationships o Saint Thomas Aquinas § Issues pointed out- dubious assumptions can be questions § Christianizing of Greek philosophy (pagan) § Things are good because we desire them, we desire them because they are good § Highest form of living/determining factor universe is reason (as opposed to passion) o Natural Laws (Pg. 33) § Arguments – pedophilia, homosexuality, etc. • Against natural law? • Ex: Eskimos leaving sick behind is conducive to human flourishing. o Works against ER o Hard to find a theory that works across the board The Doctrine of Double Effect (Aquinas) (Pg. 34) • Ethical Moral Dilemma o Conflict between two obligations of duty, can’t satisfy both simultaneously o Example: (1)To keep promise (2)To help someone that appears to be in serious need One of the obligations has to be violated William Ross • Prima facie – conditional duty to keep promises unless overridden by moral duty of higher worth conflicts • Consequentialism – action depends on the results produced by the action, one produces more desirable results (Utilitarian) Abortion • Not morally permissible by this idea • Class ex: cancerous womb Conditions • Desired effect – remove cancerous womb
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