Bisc 102 - Chapter 11: DNA Technology
Bisc 102 - Chapter 11: DNA Technology Bisc 102
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Neely on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bisc 102 at University of Mississippi taught by Carla Beth Carr in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Inquiry Into Life Human Biology in College of Liberal Arts at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Scientists can manipulate DNA. They can copy it, sequence it, switch it on and off, probe for pieces of it, and transfer it between species. Exploiting the DNA manipulations for practical purposes is call D NA technology. Transgenic organisms contain r ecombinant DNA, genetic material from another species. A plasmid is a circle of DNA. Transgenic plants: typically “infect” plants with a bacterium containing the new genes Transgenic animals: typically “infect” a gamete or zygote with a virus carrying the foreign genes. What if investigators only have a tiny amount of DNA to examine? It might be useful to replicate the Dna using the p olymerase chain reaction (PCR). First, DNA polymerase, nucleotides, and primers are combined with the target sequence of DNA. The mixture is heated, causing the DNA strands to separate. When the mixture cools, primers attach to the naked DNA strands. Dna polymerase replicates the strand, starting at the primer. 2 copies of the target sequence are produced in round 1. Investigators use PCR and DNA sequencing to detect genetic differences between individuals. Each individual has a unique pattern of s hort tandem repeats (STRs) short, repeated sequences of DNA. Due to DNA profiling, the number of DNA exonerations in the U.S. has increased in the last couple of decades. Stem cell research often sparks public debate. Stem cells are important tools for biological research because of their potential to differentiate into other cell types. Embryonic stem cells give rise to all cell types in the body. Adult stem cells differentiate into a l imited number of cell types. Stem cells in bone marrow, for example, differentiate into all blood cell types. Many medical tests and procedures use DNA technology. For example, a doctor might use a DNA probe to test whether a patient inherited a cystic fibrosis allele. A DNA probe is a singlestranded sequence that is complementary to a known regions of DNA, such as a cystic fibrosis allele. Gene therapy may someday provide new treatment options for genetic diseases by replacing a faulty gene in a person’s cells.
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