Learning Notes PSH 322
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Cornell on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSH 322 at SUNY College at Brockport taught by Dr. Forzano in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychology at SUNY College at Brockport.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Learning 9.12.2016 1. Tolman’s cognitive behaviorism a. Edward Tolman (1886 – 1959) b. Molar approach i. Behavior is broad and holistic ii. Behavior is more than just a chain of stimulus response iii. Behavior is more than just the sum of its parts c. Intervening variables i. Where does need come from? 1. A state of deprivation with regard to some kind of physiological need ii. Organisms are not just motivated by drive – there is more that motivates behavior iii. Expectations and hypotheses also cause behavior 1. Cognitive processes d. Cognitive behaviorism (purposive behaviorism) i. In Tolman’s cognitive behaviorism theorists make use of intervening variables, in the form of hypothesized cognitive processes, to help explain the relationship between environment and behavior 2. Bandura’s social learning theory a. Albert Bandura (1925 - ) b. Bridge between behaviorism and cognitive learning theories i. Cognitive variables in explaining human behavior ii. We can learn from one another from observation, modeling, imitation c. Miller and Dollard (1941) i. Initially started talking about imitation d. 1961 Bobo Doll studies e. Observational learning or modeling f. Social learning theory i. Cognitive behavioral approach that emphasized the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining behavior and includes reciprocal determinism g. Influenced by Hull h. Also influenced by Tolman’s ideas of internal events i. Constructs are talked about as separate things j. Self-referent thoughts i. Thinking about your abilities and accomplishments – these thoughts have a direct effect on behavior k. Reciprocal determinism i. Environmental events, observable behaviors, and person variables have this back and forth influence on each other l. Cognitive behavior theory (CBT) i. Psychological disorders are treated by altering both environmental variables and cognitive processes 3. Skinner’s radical behaviorism a. Burrhus Fredrick Skinner (1904 – 1990) b. Skinner’s version of behaviorism i. His theory influenced the environment on overt behaviors but his theory goes on to explain how exactly the environment works by way of consequences in having an effect on behavior ii. Rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior which makes him different from all of the others iii. Unlike Watson, who completely rejected the idea of internal events, he acknowledged them but said we can’t use them to explain behavior iv. Covert behaviors – private behaviors – their subject to the same laws of learning as the overt behaviors – public behaviors. c. Some misconceptions about skinner i. Skinner did acknowledge the internal thoughts – called them covert behaviors ii. Skinner was not an SR behaviorist – he was not molecular Learning 9.14.2016 1. Skinner’s radical behaviorism a. Burrhus Fredrick Skinner b. Skinner’s version of behaviorism c. Some misconceptions i. Skinner distinguished between reflexive behaviors and operant behaviors ii. Respondent behaviors can be classically conditioned iii. Operant behaviors can be learned by control of its consequences iv. Skinner did acknowledge the role of genetics in behavior v. Behavior is the result of both our genes and our environments 1. Nature AND nurture vi. The ability to learn is an inherited trait vii. Skinner’s theory was similar to banduras in terms of acknowledging reciprocal determinism 1. Environment ultimately determines the overt and covert behaviors d. The experimental analysis of behavior (behavior analysis) i. The scientific study of the laws or principles according to skinner’s version of behaviorism ii. The term applied behavior analysis is the term used for the techniques that are based on the principles of behavior analysis 1. Techniques used to modify behaviors 2. Summary of schools of behaviorism a. Watson’s methodological behaviorism b. Hull’s neobehaviorism c. Tolman’s cognitive behaviorism d. Bandura’s social learning theory e. Skinner’s radical behaviorism Learning 9.16.2016 1. Components of an experiment a. Manipulation i. Independent variable ii. Levels iii. Treatment conditions 1. Defined by the level of the independent variable iv. Need to be at least 2 different values of the independent variable b. Measurement i. Dependent variable ii. Operational definition – specifies an objective, observable behavior to be used for the definition iii. Ways of measuring c. Comparison d. Control i. Extraneous variables – any variable aside from the IV and DV that could have caused the change in the DV ii. Confounds (confounding variables) – the variable that changes systematically along with the IV. Also influences the changes in the DV iii. Dealing with extraneous variables 2. Additional details about learning experiments a. IV = environmental event b. DV = behavior c. May have more than 1 IV and DV d. Two major types of designs i. Group designs 1. Between-subjects designs 2. Within-subjects designs ii. Single-subject designs Learning 9.23.2016 1. Elicited Behaviors 2. Types of learning a. Classical conditioning (AKA Pavlovian or Respondent conditioning i. Elicited; involuntary ii. An inborn behavior brought forth in a new situation iii. Behaviors are automatically brought out or elicited by stimuli b. Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) i. Strengthening or weakening of a behavior as a result of a consequence ii. Said to be emitted by the organism or that the response operates on the environment iii. Response is instrumental in producing a consequence 3. What is an elicited behavior? a. Definition: drawn out by presentation of a stimulus; more specifically an elicited behavior is controlled by the stimulus that precedes it b. A stimulus is anything that could influence a behavior or response c. Involuntary behaviors, innate behaviors, behaviors that people are born with d. Why learn about elicited behavior in a learning class? i. Many learned behaviors are extensions of innate behaviors ii. Elicited responses are involved in the most basic and common forms of behavior change 1. Habituation and sensitization e. Two types of elicited behaviors i. Reflexes ii. Fixed action patterns 4. Reflex a. A relatively simple automatic response to a stimulus b. Stereotyped pattern of movement of a part of a body that can be reliably elicited by presenting the appropriate stimulus c. Presentation of a stimulus is followed by a response d. Common examples: i. Eye blink ii. Pupil constriction iii. Pupil dilation iv. Sneezing v. Coughing vi. Salvation vii. Patellar reflex viii. Reflexes in newborns ix. Startle response/reflex x. Flexion response/reflex e. Reflex arc i. A neural structure that underlies many reflexes and consists of three parts 1. Sensory neurons a. Afferent neurons b. Transmit sensory messages to the spinal cord 2. Interneurons a. In the spinal cord – go between the sensory neurons and the motor neurons 3. Motor neurons a. Efferent Neurons b. The neurons that activate the muscles involved in the reflex 5. Fixed Action Pattern (Modular action pattern) a. Stereotyped pattern of several muscle movements which once elicited proceed to completion without any further sensory input b. Differentiate from reflexes i. Although both are stereotyped behaviors the FAP involves several muscle movements and so is a fixed sequence of responses ii. Simple reflexes are evident across all species whereas FAP are species specific behaviors Learning 9.14.2016 1. Introduction a. Science i. How we discover information in this area of psychology b. Scientific method i. A way of knowing, a way of acquiring information or knowledge ii. Strategies and designs iii. Goes between observation and reasoning c. Experimental strategy i. Experiments or true experiments ii. Purpose/goal 1. To determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between two variables iii. The question that an experiment attempts to answer 1. Does X cause Y to change? 2. Determine a clear causal relationship between the two variables iv. Components of an experiment Learning 9.19.2016 1. Major categories of experimental designs a. Group designs i. Between-subjects designs 1. Compare different groups of subjects 2. Subjects 1-10 in the first condition 3. Subjects 11-20 in the second condition ii. Within-subjects designs 1. The same individuals (subjects or participants) are in each of the conditions. 2. The same individuals are in each of the levels of the independent variable 3. Subjects 1-10 are in the first condition and the second condition 4. The same subjects are in each group because you are looking at the same thing within the group. 5. Comparing the results of the two treatments with the same group b. Single subject designs i. Phases 1. In a single-case experimental design the term that is used for conditions is the term phase ii. Graph 1. During each of the phases the behavior is measured and plotted on a graph iii. Visual inspection of data 1. Researchers looking at the difference in behavior at the different phases of the experiment to see if the independent variable is responsible for the changes in the dependent variable iv. Experimental designs done with a single individual sometimes known as small end designs 2. Advantages of using animals in research a. Researchers have the ability to control their genetic makeup b. Researchers have the ability to control their learning history c. Researchers have the ability to control their experimental environment d. Some research cannot ethically be conducted with humans 3. Arguments against using animals in research a. The finding from animal research necessarily have limited applicability to humans b. It is morally wrong c. Animals should have rights similar to humans Learning 9.26.2016 1. Well researched examples a. Three-spined stickleback fish i. Releasers or sign-stimuli 1. A specific stimulus or some aspect or part of a stimulus that triggers or elicits a fixed action pattern b. Begging behavior of newly hatched herring gulls i. Pecking at the beak of a parent ii. Long thin moving object that is pointed at the parent’s beak. 2. Effects of repeated stimulation a. Common assumptions (but wrong) i. The elicited behaviors will automatically occur in the same way every time ii. It’s not like a reflex iii. Don’t look the same every time b. Alterations in the nature of elicited behavior often occur as the result of repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus i. Decreasing the strength of the elicited behavior ii. Increasing the strength of the elicited behavior 3. Habituation a. A decrease in response following increased presentation of an elicited stimulus b. The decline in responding that occurs with a repeated presentation of a stimulus is called a habituation effect c. Short-term habituation i. The response quickly decreases but then after an absence of the stimulation when it is introduced again the response quickly recovers ii. Tends to occur when presentations of the stimulus are narrowly spaced or continuous d. Long-term habituation i. The response slowly decreases with repeated stimulation and then it slowly recovers ii. Would take a long absence of the stimulation to get the response again e. Doesn’t generalize or extend to other similar stimuli f. Dishabituation i. Not just the recovery of a response after the reintroduction of a stimulus ii. A habituation response reappears following the presentation of a seemingly irrelevant novel stimulus Learning 9.28.2016 1. Sensitization a. Refers to an increase in the strength of the elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus. b. Examples: soldiers under attack c. Additional note: i. What’s going on with why repeated exposure brings an increase instead of a decrease is that the organization is already aroused d. Lab research: i. Investigating the startle response in rats ii. The way that they elicited this response was that they repeatedly exposed the rats to a relatively brief loud tone iii. 30 seconds quiet 90 seconds loud noise iv. Did between subjects experiment with two groups 1. One had soft background noise 2. One had loud background noise 2. Why sometimes habituation and other times sensitization? a. We tend to habituate to stimuli that are currently irrelevant (provide no useful or novel information) and to stimuli that are low in intensity b. We tend to sensitize to stimuli that are currently relevant and high in intensity c.
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