Lecture Notes for Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 2&3
Lecture Notes for Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 2&3 Bio121
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Casida on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio121 at Stark State College taught by Dr. Ryan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology 1 in Anatomy and Physiology at Stark State College.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Lecture Notes Chapter 2&3 Chemistry-‐ The study of matter and its transformations. Matter-‐anything that occupies space and has weight. Matter-‐ three forms, differ in density 1-‐Solid 2-‐Liquid 3-‐Gas Transformation-‐ converting one form of matter/material into another form of matter/material. *The body uses chemical processes in metabolism to: 1-‐Convert something we can’t use into something we can use 2-‐Prevent a harmful substance from harming us Atom-‐ the smallest unit of matter -‐for this class, interchangeable with elements subatomic particles-‐ different pieces and parts of an atom, including: 1-‐Protons-‐ in the central part, or nucleus -‐Have an electrical field around them -‐Positively charged -‐the # of these never change in an atom, making it their identification #, or atomic number. 2-‐Neutrons-‐found in the nucleus -‐do not carry a charge, so it is said to be neutral in charge -‐The amount, or # can change in an atom -‐if the # of neutrons is different, the atom is an isotope -‐Isotope-‐ a different form of an atom-‐ radioactive 3-‐Electrons-‐found outside the nucleus, found in circular paths, or orbits that contain shells -‐Always negatively charged -‐The # of electrons is subject to change, depending on the atom. The weight of an atom= #of protons + #of neutrons Atomic mass= #of protons + #of neutrons Angiograms use a certain type of isotope to treat cancer Decay-‐ half life-‐ the length of time required for a given quantity of an isotope to lose half of its initial radiation. Decay is consistent, it is not determined by how much of a substance you have to start with. Planetary model-‐ The model that describes electrons orbiting the nucleus like planets orbit a star. Ion-‐ an atom with a charge Positive charge-‐ cation Negative charge-‐ anion Ionization-‐the process in which an atom gets its charge Examples: dissolving salt in water Chemical reactions in medicine Radiation and cancer Once an atom is charged, it wants to chemically react. Neutral atoms don’t react. Electrons determine chemical reactivity= chemical bonding Na-‐ Sodium 11 protons -‐11 electrons 0 charge Na 11 protons -‐10 electrons 1 positive charge Na+ Sodium donates that electron to Chlorine. This process is called Oxidization. Cl-‐ chlorine 17 protons -‐17 electrons 0 charge electron accepted from Na (sodium): Results in a process called Reduction. Cl-‐chlorine 17 protons -‐18 electons -‐1 charge Cl-‐ chloride anion The thing that keeps Na+ and Cl-‐ together is called a bond. Their properties now completely change Chemical reactions Chemical reactions-‐ reactions from products, and the products have completely different properties than the initial reactants. Bond-‐an interaction between two atoms, mostly to do with what the electrons do in an atom. Ionic bond-‐ complete electron transfer from one atom to another, creating cations and anions, usually a weak reaction. Covalent bonds-‐ electrons are shared between atoms * always sharing electrons in pairs. A strong bond. “valence orbital” outermost part, or path of an atom Note: because carbon can have so many covalent bonds, it is the forerunner of organic chemistry When an ionic bond dissolves in water, they create electrolytes. Enzyme-‐ something that breaks chemical bonds quickly and effectively, Hydrogen bond-‐ a magnetic type of bond, hydrogen must be present, along with either: -‐Nitrogen -‐Oxygen -‐Flourine It is not a molecule between electrons, it is a molecule between atoms. Example: water *The weakest type of bond Properties unique in water/hydrogen bonds: -‐Heat stability-‐ needs to absorb a sufficient amount of heat to change its form, but needs a lot to change. -‐High heat capacity-‐ used for heating and cooling purposes-‐>easily -‐Slow evaporation rate-‐ the hydrogen tethers the molecules from evaporating quickly. -‐Capillary action-‐ flowing phenomenon, it naturally likes to move. Like a meniscus, it tends to want to move up the sides of the cylinder, moves in veins easier, and tubes easier. -‐Solid form is lower in density than its liquid form (ice floats). Molecule-‐ a combining of two or more atoms. Organization of Molecules/ Compounds Organic-‐ contains carbon Inorganic-‐ does not contain carbon Inorganic Compounds Acids-‐ a)when it reacts, it gives off H+ (hydrogen) ions b) The pH is always below 7 pH scale-‐ how acidic or basic a substance is 0-‐14, also called the “power of Hydrogen” Bases-‐ the pH is always 7 or above.
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