Music 121 Week 6 Lecture Notes
Music 121 Week 6 Lecture Notes Music 121
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Bynum on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Bailey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Lecture: The Romantic Era (1825-1900) September 29, 2016 Romantic Style Features • Multiple emotions portrayed - Modulations more frequent and unexpected - More dramatic dynamic changes and expanded range - Style shifts - Contrasting timbre changes • Longer, more complex works - Same forms from previous eras, but expanded in length • Individuality of style - Composers became easier to identify - Composers tend to focus on a particular genre • Depictions of nature common Franz Schubert (1797-1828) • Embodied Romantic era’s fascination of suffering for one’s art - “Starving artist” • Transitional style - Early works embody Classical style - Later works noticeably rooted in Romanticism • Composed in many genres • Best remembered for small-scale chamber music, especially the art song (lied) Lieder • Poetry musically set for voice and piano Popular in Germany and Austria • - Commonly referred to as lied (song) or lieder (songs) • 3 main forms: 1. Strophic - Same music for each verse with changed words - Example: America the Beautiful 2. Through-Composed - New music without repetition - Example: Schubert’s Erlkonig 3. Modiﬁed Strophic - Mixture of repeated music and words with sections of new music - Example: Pop songs of today • Die Winterreise (1828) - Song cycle (multiple songs that tell a collective story) of poems by Wilhelm Muller Auf dem Flusse (On the River) • - Modiﬁed strophic form - Modulations - Minor when viewing frozen river - Major when remembering lost love - Minor when character describes broken heart • Dynamic Shift - Notable contrast of forte in coda • Style shifts - Pesante (heavy) style in minor section - Dolce (sweet) style in major section - Appassionata (passionate) style in ﬁnal coda Romantic Piano Music • Pianos became a ﬁxture of the new middle class • Variety of music written for personal enjoyment • Composers explored possibilities of expanded range, larger dynamic spectrum, and timbres • Two major types of music - Amateur-accessible compositions - Professional-calibre compositions Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) • Expatriated Polish composer who spent professional life in Paris - Many works have Polish folk themes • Focused almost entirely on piano music • Composed both amateur-accessible and professional-calibre works Franz Liszt (1811-1886) Pushed the boundaries of piano’s possibilities • • Became international superstar • Only a handful of professional pianists in Romantic era could attempt his music • Today pianists are expected to be able to perform Liszt’s music • Ex: Sonata for Piano in B Minor • Quick dynamic shifts • Multiple cross-handed passages • Drastic changes of range • Thickly-scored passages incorporate most ﬁngers on both hands Romantic Virtuosity • Composers like Liszt and performers like Niccolo Paganini pushed boundaries of their instruments • Virtuoso: a performer with complete technical control of their instrument • Virtuosity performers were able to make a successful careers touring • Best seen in Romantic concerto Romantic Concerto • Piano and violin most commonly featured • Three-movement form still in place from Baroque and Classical eras • Sonata form from Classical era still used as ﬁrst movement of Romantic Concerto • Longer cadenzas More detailed technical passages • • Memorable themes to organize formal sections
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