Arch History Week 6
Arch History Week 6 ARCH 211
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 211 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Gregor Kalas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see History of Arch in Architecture at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
1 Architecture History September 26, 2016 Synagogue of Dura Europos - Original Location: Dura Europos, Syria (Currently in Damascus) - “Wall Street” - Original location: Dura Europos, Syria - Currently in Damndcus - Goes against 2 commandment - Vibrant artwork of cultures o From Greek-speaking and Latin-speaking worlds - “community trying to find identity for itself” - Centered on Torah niche o faces Jerusalem - Close to city wall - Have to go thru corridors to get to synagogue o only one entrance - Benches surrounding wall - Stepped up place for leader to stand - Images of arch of the covenant and parting of red sea on wall - Ancient graffiti in Greek and Aramaic on walls - Above Torah niche: citrus and candelabra, sacrifice of Isaac, temple of Jerusalem o obeys prohibition against graven imagery - also has pagan image Ark in the Land of the Philistines in Front of the Temple of Dagon - Paintings from the synagogue of Dura-Europos - Painting of the Red Sea/ Temple in Jerusalem House Church with Baptistery (E or 10) at Dura-Europos - Dura Europos - Open air courtyard - Baptism basin also in a niche o visual similarity to Torah niche o to give arch definition to the area - Images (parables) on the wall St. Gall Plan - Made in Reichenau, Germany c.820 2 - Sent to St. Gall, Switzerland - Benedictine Monasticism - Benedict of Nursia, 6 Century - Cloister = Claustrum, St. Gall Plan - Set up residentially Comparison - Wailing Wall Retaining Wall of the Destroyed Temple o Jerusalem - Arch of Titus in Rome – Procession with Candelabrum Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem - Idea of proportions/ideal measurements for a building - Had a restricted space-only accessible to important priests - Arch of covenant was hidden here - Places for cleansing and practicing outside o Only the elite priests could go inside Rome – Basilica of Maxentius or Basilica of Constantine - Barrel or Tunnel Vaults - Rome, Italy - Used for law courts 3 - Vaulted spaces o ornamented in the interior - Mimicking other vast structures in Rome - Inserted huge sculpture of Constanine in it when he came to power - Instability of structure-bolstered with a semicircular projection o created a space for judges to sit o make it seem like appellates are getting authority from Constantine (in statue form) Courtyard of Old St. Peter’s in Rome - Vatican Basilica - Shown in Vatican Manuscript (Barberini Lat 2733) o Drawn by Giacomo Grimaldi in the 16thc. - Rome - Step away from the house-churches in past - Based on basilicas - Huge bronze pinecone that was in the - middle of the courtyard - About 100 columns o Diff colors of marble - Ceiling had large timbers spanning the width - Apse similar to torah niche o Marks directionality and a focal point o Altar would be put in front of this o According to legend, St. peter is buried underground this spot - Big enough to hold entire Christian community of that time - Spiral columns at altar 1 Architecture History September 28, 2016 Byzantine Empire - Sixth Century - Christianity spread – leading to The organization of empires S. Sabina - Rome - Church - Certain marks on the building from Construction scaffolding - Using principles of the arch - Using bricks on the exterior o Connection with the past in Rome o Façade experience - Arcades - Clerestory; Spolia (Reused) - Exterior is humbler, while the interior Is much more grand – creating its own Experience of pulling you in - Influence of light o The reflection of light directs you in To the building and around the Spaces - Designs originated from one building - Idea of repurposing styles within the building’s design and structure o Bringing back the past o Recognizing the validity by Appropriating the past - Important features: o Clerestory windows o Entrance wall o “When [Pope] Celestine [I] held the highest apostolic post shining as the foremost bishop in the whole world…” o Chancel Barier Marks off place where clergy is S. Stefano Rotondo - Rome 2 - Date: 468 - Dedicated to Saint Stephen - Round building o Creates a clear focus on the center o Traditional design focusing on The burial o There’s a great diversity of elements Within the structure The mismatched columns are most likely Because of the collection from different areas o The were proud of the lack of harmony o There’s a set of cylindrical supports Leading and emphasizing a main center - The drawings and plans reveal there Were inner and outer circles – Creating middle spaces within The structure - There’s a side chapel that’s decorated - The building is a Martyrium o A burial place for a martyr o Thought to be the first - The building really focuses and calls Attention the the circular aspect of Emphasizing the martyrs Byzantine Constantinople - Procopius (Historian) - Shown as Ottoman Istanbul - Area is now known as Istanbul 3 - Hagia Sophia o Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus o Hired the two most advanced engineering professors To design a building – Wanted The most qualified to design o Built during the time of the life of the prophet o No longer functioning as a mosque o It is now a museum o Back and forth of construction and deconstruction in order to allow elements to dry o Territoral display o o Light Emphasizes the dome Leads people throught he spaces o Mammoth Dome 180ft above the ground Showcasing the engineering Within the architecture designs The designers were very proud Of the feat It’s held up by hidden piers emerging From the building Angled outwards because of the Lack of time they had to be properly Built (dried) 5-year building schedule, so it’s significant that they were able to build the structure within the time frame