General Psychology- Chapter 5 September 30th
General Psychology- Chapter 5 September 30th PSYC - 11762 - 004
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC - 11762 - 004 at Kent State University taught by Sharon M Sciartelli (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 5 Continued… Skinner's Contribution - Learning depends on what happens after behavior - Manipulate consequences to change behavior ✴ - Expanded on Thorndike's law of effect Four ways to Change Behavior : Reinforcements- increase behavior; make feel good so they increase the behavior ● Positive reinforcement- add a good (Ex; giving food) ● Negative reinforcement- take away a bad (Ex; reducing a punishment) Punishment- decrease Behavior; make feel bad so they decrease the behavior ● Positive punishment- (By application) add a bad (soap in mouth for bad words, spanks, criticism) ● Negative punishment- (By removal) take away a good (Take away phone, privileges (being grounded/timeout)) Positive: Give something Negative: Take something MORE VOCAB: Primary reinforcers - Automatically feels good (meets a biological need (hunger, thirst, or touch)) Secondary Reinforcers - Learn that it means something good (grades, tokens, gold stars, money) Shaping - Reinforces simple steps leading to complex behavior Instinctive drift - Some things harder to train than others (training to do something against instincts is harder to train) Other Operant Conditioning Concepts: Extinction- Behavior stops if it is not reinforced Spontaneous Recovery- an extinct behavior reappears Discriminative stimulus- Lets you know if reinforcement is likely (mom in bad mood, you know to wait to ask for something) How to make punishment more effective: Punishment 1. Should be immediate (especially young and animals) 2. Should be consistent- (otherwise what?) A. They will think they can get away with it sometimes 3. Should be paired with reinforcement of desired behavior (need to fill gap- want to fill with good and feel good) B. Reward behavior you want to see to motivate the good behavior More info... 1. Fear and anxiety can decrease learning 2. Physical punishment can lead to more aggression 3. Can teach to avoid being caught, doesn’t really change the behavior Schedules of reinforcement: Continuous reinforcements - Everytime correct response (everytime bed is made, good grades, clean room) Partial reinforcements - Only some of the time Partial reinforcement effect - Delays extinction (by 5 get the 6th one free) - Now you never know, if one more you could get a reward What should I use? -Continuous to learn the behavior -Partial to maintain the behavior
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