9.26.16 History Notes
9.26.16 History Notes 1311-002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Francisco Soto on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1311-002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Rufki Salihi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see history in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Monday 9.26.16 history notes Imperial Rivalries A vast territorial empire on paper, Spanish North America actually consisted of a few small isolated urban clusters. Despite establishing religious missions and presidios, the Spanish population in Spain´s North America Empire remained relatively small and sparse. The Spanish in California. Spain ordered the colonization of California in response to a perceived Russian threat Junipero Serra founded the first mission in San Diego in 1769´ California was a mission frontier. Heavy death of natives due to disease and forced labor. The French empire France was Britain’s biggest rival in Europe and North America The French empire in the early century expanded Much smaller in population the French tended to view North America as a place of cruel exile for criminals and social outcasts. The middle ground Indians were constantly being pushed from their homes into a middle ground between European empires and Indian sovereignty. The Indians of the Ohio River Valley saw the rivalry of Britain and France as a threat and a opportunity. The government of Virginia gave an immense land grant in 1749 to the Ohio Company. The 7 years’ war In the first half of the 18 century, was against Spain and France set the stage for England becoming the dominant power in Europe. The war began in 1754 as the British tried to dislodge the French from western Pennsylvania. The war went against the British until 1757, when William Pitt became British Secretary of State and turned the tide of battle. In 1760, the French surrendered Montreal, their last North American outpost, to the British. The peace of Paris in 1763 resulted in the expulsion of France from North America. Pitt declared that peace would be as hard to make as war, and the war indeed put future financial strains on all participants. Pontiac’s rebellion With the removal of the French the balance of power diplomacy that had enabled grounds like the Iroquois to maintain a significant degree of autonomy was eliminated. In 1763 Indians launched a revolt against British rule Neolin championed a pan-Indian identity. The proclamation line To avoid further Indian conflicts, London issued the proclamation of 1763, which banned white settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains The proclamation enraged settlers and land speculators hoping to take advantage of the expulsion of the French. Pennsylvania and the Indian The war deepened the hostility of western Pennsylvania farmers toward Indians and witnessed numerous indiscriminate assaults on Indian communities. Prior to the seven years war London had loosely tried to regulate some of the colonies economy. Various acts forbade colonial manufacturing of items like hats, wool, and iron and trading for molasses with the French Caribbean. Navigation acts Molasses act 1733 After the seven years’ war London insisted that the colonist play a subordinate role and help pay for the protection the British provided. Members of the British parliament had virtual representation. The colonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in the parliament. British writs of assistance to combat smuggling alarmed many colonists. Taxing the colonies George Greenville The sugar act of 1764 and the revenue act threatened the profits of colonial merchants and aggravated and economic recession. The stamp act crisis The stamp act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materials. First time taxes used to raise revenue in British North American history. The act was wide reaching and offended virtually every free colonist. Opposition to the stamp act was the first great drama of the revolutionary era and the first major split between the colonist and Great Britain. Taxation and representation American leaders viewed the British Empire as an association of equals in which free settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at home. Patrick Henry led opposition by proposing 4 resolutions approved by Virginias House of Burgesses The stamp act congress met in 1765
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