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Psychology Chapter 6

by: Samantha Bidinger

Psychology Chapter 6 Psych 1560

Samantha Bidinger

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 6 - Memory
General Psychology
Lindsay DeVicchio
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Bidinger on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1560 at Youngstown State University taught by Lindsay DeVicchio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Youngstown State University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 6 – Memory Memory: Process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Stages: - Encoding - Storage - Retrieval Sensory memory: Initial, momentary storage of info; lasts only an instant Iconic memory: Reflects info from visual system Echoic memory: Stores auditory info Short-term memory: Holds info for 15-25 seconds Chunk: Grouping of info that can be stored in short-term memory Rehearsal: Repetition of info that has entered short-term memory Elaborative rehearsal: Info is considered and organized in some way Mnemonics: Organizing info so that it is more likely to be remembered Long-term memory: Stores info on relatively permanent basis, may be difficult to retrieve Declarative memory: For factual information Procedural memory: For skills and habits aka nondeclarative memory Semantic memory: For general knowledge Episodic memory: For events occurring in particular time, place, or context Semantic networks: Mental representations of clusters of interconnected info Spreading activation: One memory activation triggers related memory activation - Neuroscience of memory: o Engram: Physical memory trace in the brain corresponding to a memory o Hippocampus: Plays large role in consolidation of memories o Amygdala: Involved w/ emotional memories - Memory at neuron level o Long-term potentiation: Certain neural pathways are easily excited while a new response is being learned o Consolidation: Memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory Working memory: Set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse info, uses cognitive resources, effectiveness can be reduced by stress Central executive processor: Involved in reasoning and decision making (visual store, verbal store, episodic buffer) Recalling Long-Term Memories Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Inability to recall info one realizes they know Retrieval Cues  Stimulus allowing us to more easily recall info that is in long-term memory Recall: Specific piece of info must be retrieved Recognition: When one is presented with a stimulus, and asked if they were previously exposed to it, or asked to identify it from a list Levels of Processing  Degree to which new material is mentally analyzed o Shallow levels, info processed in terms of physical and sensory aspects o Deepest levels, info is analyzed in terms of meaning Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory: Intentional or conscious info recollection Implicit memory: Memories people are not consciously aware of Priming: Exposure to a word or concept that makes it easier to recall related info Flashbulb Memories  Memories related to a specific, important, or surprising event that are easily recalled with vivid imagery o Source amnesia: An individual has a memory for something but cannot recall where it was encountered Constructive Processes in Memory  Process in which the meaning given to events influences memories o Schemas: Informational bodies stored in memory that bias the way new info is interpreted, stored, and recalled o Autobiographical memory: Recollection of own life experiences Forgetting  Memory failure is essential  Forgetting helps keep unwanted info for interfering w/ retrieving wanted info  Forget because of failure to encode Decay: Loss of info through nonuse Memory traces: Physical changes in the brain when new material is learned  Key processes in forgetting: Interference: Info in memory disrupts recall of other info Cue-dependent forgetting: Insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle info that is in memory Proactive and Retroactive Interference Proactive interference: Info previously learned disrupts recall of newer material (progresses in time) Retroactive interference: Material learned later disrupts retrieval of newer material (retrogresses in time) Memory Dysfunctions Alzheimer ’s disease: Progressive brain disorder leading to a gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities Amnesia: Memory loss that occurs w/o other mental difficulties Retrograde amnesia: Memory lost for occurrences prior to a certain event, but not for new Events Anterograde amnesia: Memory lost for events following an injury Korsakoff’s syndrome: Tendency to repeat same story (afflicts long-term alcoholics)


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