Popular in Cultural Aspects of FDNS
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 8 9/26 -9/30 ) Monday: Explanation of the group project: Presentation: 15 minutes per group (50 points). PowerPoint presentation Project report: Due November 11 in class, Individual (100 points), up to 4 pages Font 11, Calibri (body), Double spaced, 0 before/after spacing, normal margin 3 students per group (19 groups) + 2 students per group (2 groups) = 61 students 810 order? Last name alphabet order? Or? SEND AN EMAIL BY THE END OF NEXT WEEK WITH YOUR GROUP MEMBER NAMES Midpoint check with Dr. Park: between October 18 and November 4 , one time per group Discussants will be assigned. Discussion will be included in the group points (the 50 points) Topics: You are opening an authentic restaurant Option 1: A college town in USA; authentic foods other than traditional American food Option 2: A capital city of a country other than USA; traditional American food Your budget is unlimited Make a plan • Make a survey plan: target customers, main questions, survey results (virtual answers) • Name of restaurant • Menu, explanation of each dish (for example, flavor principle, meaning, how to eat, etc.) • Advertisement points/ focus • Business hour/date (either seasonal, holiday, or year round) • Interior decoration/music Things to consider • Acculturation status of the local population to the other culture • Understanding both cultures • Purpose: understanding the lecture material • Be creative, unique, and fun Wednes day: Buddhism • Founded by Suddhartha Gautama about 2,500 years ago • 376 million followers worldwide • 2.1 million followers in US • Buddhism was a protestant revolt against orthodox Hinduism Similarities with Hinduism -Reincarnation -Path to wisdom requires controlling bodily desires -Spiritual liberation of soul Differences with Hinduism -No caste system -Avoid extremes in life; follow The Middle Way (Avoid the extreme of sensuality and indulgences in worldly pleasures. Avoid extremes of austerity, mortification, and self-torture) Practices of Buddhism Nirvana (Moksha in Hinduism) • State of calm insight • Achieved when one perfects Buddha’s teaching Encourage a monastic lifestyls Monks: the ideal Buddhist • Follow a simple life • Mediate • Own no property • Obtain food by begging • Are usually vegetarian • Eat only before noon Three ideas explain Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, Noble Eightfold, Five Precepts Basic concept in Buddhism: suffering Four Noble Truths: 1. Dukkha: The Noble Truth of Suffering -All Life is characterized by suffering -Persons suffer when they experience birth, old age, sickness, and death 2. Samudaya: The Noble Truth of Cause of Suffering -Suffering is caused by a person’s cravings for life and attachments to pleasure, wealth, power, and even ideals and beliefs 3. Nirodha: The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering. -Liberation comes with the end of the craving -Liberation from suffering can be done by yourself. You do not need God or priests. 4. Magga: The Noble Truth to the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering. The way out is the Noble Eightfold Path Noble Eightfold Path: Right Mindfulness, Concentration, Effort (Mental development/Meditation) Right view, Intentions (Wisdom) Right speech, action, livelihood (Ethical Conduct Morality) “This is the Buddhist Wheel of Law”- represents the Eightfold Path Korea has a rice cake that looks like the Eightfold Path Practical code of concept (Five Precepts) Right speech and Right action have been extended into these precepts • Abstain from taking life (similar to ahimsa) • Abstain from taking what is not given • Abstain from all illegal sexual pleasures • Abstain from lying • Abstain from consumption of intoxicants Two Major Buddhist Traditions Theravada Buddhism (Southern) (more orthodox) • Myanmar, Laos, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (south and west) • Most orthodox; most closely follow teachings from Buddha, no emphasis on deities, meditation is important; more about yourself) Mahayana Buddhism (Eastern) • China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam (north), Taiwan • Originated in response to orthodoxy of Theravada, Buddha is a divinity, meditation is important; more about population, public Primary reason for eating: enlightenment and survival General dietary recommendations- great diversity (depending on the sects and country) 1. Eat in moderation 2. Eat only foods that nourish and prevent illness 3. Do not eat raw foods 4. Eat slowly, chew and taste the food- swallow mindfully 5. Avoid alcohol and other intoxicants 6. Eat only between dawn and dusk (mostly followed by monks) 70% of US Buddhists say Buddhism influences dietary choices Vegetarianism is common • Some are vegans • Some lacto-ovo vegetarians • Some abstain from red meat and poultry, but eat fish (Cambodia- fish only) • Some abstain from poultry and fish, but eat red meat • Red meat only, maybe poultry but never fish (Tibet) 5 contemplations while eating 1. The food is a gift from universe 2. May we eat it in mindfulness so as to be worth 3. May we transform out unskillful states of mind and learn to eat in moderation 4. May we take only foods that nourish us and prevent illness 5. We accept this food so that we may practice the path of understanding and love Fasting Fast days vary with tradition 4 traditional fast days per month New Moon, Quarter moons, Full moon Monks fast every day after noon Fasting is abstaining from solid foods with some liquid permitted Among meat eaters- abstinence from meat Why fast? Method of purifications, self-control Holy Days Vesak- most holy day- Buddha’s birthday Dharma day- Buddha began teaching Sangha- he first full moon day of March Nirvana day- Buddha completed Nirvana, upon the death of his physical body Regional Influence: India Asian- Origins in any people of the Far East, SE Asia, or Indian subcontinent Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islanders- origins in original people of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, other Pacific Islands rd 3 largest minority groups- 5.3% pop Asian population ranking- 2010 US: 1. Chinese 2. Asian Insians biggest group in US 3. Filipino 4. Vietnamese 5. Korean Georgia 1. Asian Indian 2. Korean 3. Vietnamese 4. Chinese 5. Filipino India South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan) Asian Indian Immigration Patterns 1. 1820-1920 (mainly agragarian Sikhs) 2. 1960-1970s (well-educated urban professionals) 3. Current (well educated Indian professionals, less educated rural individuals) Most have come from northern India- led to American perception of Indian foods based on this region India • 1/3 the land mass of US • 3x the US population (more than 1 billion) • People as diverse as climate and geography (India is culturally complex) • Government recognizes 15 languages • Actually 300 spoken with 700 dialiects • Many speak English as a second language • Hindi is national language Indian Foodways Major influences: Natural resources present and history- climate, topography, rivers, coast Local traditions and customs (regionality) This is where you see influences of previous conquerors Status (caste system and untouchables Religion/faith (tradition) (most important) Major Religious groups in India Hindu 83-85% Muslims 10-11% (mostly in north India with typical dietary restriction) Sikhs 2% (mostly in north India, about 25% of US Asian Indians, earliest immigrant to US) Christians 2% (most in Goa on west coast, various protestant denominations and Catholics, Catholics due to strong Portuguese influence here) (In Goa- Hindus are 66% however 25% are Christians) Buddhist >1% (more important in other parts of Asia despite origins here. But continues to gain new adherants) Parsi (diet is mostly non vegetarian, diet is a blend of Indian and middle eastern/Persian fare with some British influences) Sikhism Rebellion against Hinduism/Islam Not a strong dietary law (more focused on every day life and society) Rejects: Celibacy, rather a contributing member of society Caste system (everyone is equal in eyes of God) Blind religious rituals (fasting, pilgrimage, sacraments) Defining Characteristics of Indian Cuisine • Pronounced use of spices -Much heavier use than is typical of mainstream American cuisine -Spices have either a preservative or antiseptic quality • Prominence of flat bread -Many different kinds -Dominantly wheat (N) or rice (S) based on varying with region • Greater use of dairy produces that any other place in Asia -In general, lactose intolerance is high among Asians; only India has a high dairy use (North Indian- lower lactose intolerance than the South. South is still lower than East Indian) But most of the dairy products that they use are fermented -Yogurt, paneer (soft cheese), buttermilk, are key components • Use of pureed vegetables, yogurt, cream, coconut milk, ground nuts, or combination to thicken sauces -Most cultures use wheat, corn, or other starch sources to thicken soups, stew, and gravies -In India, common thickeners are.. Friday: Differentiating factors- spices and condiments • Seasonings • Preparation • Vary regionally and with specific dish • Used for medicinal purposes Flavor Principles North- cumin, ginger, garlic + variations South- mustard seed, coconut, tamarind, chili + variations Seasonings -Tolerance for high levels of spices far exceeds that of mainstream America -Multiple seasonings agents used in a single dish (12 in meat dishes in North are not unusual) -Most spices and few herbs Preparation -Whole, ground, raw, toasted -Sometimes more than one form in the same dish - Masala: mixture of seasonings (spices) Wet: fresh spices ground and cooked with liquid (water, coconut milk) and then blended in (south) Dry: fresh spices cooked in hot oil or dry roasted than added (north) - Masala Dabba: spice box What is curry? Curry powder- the spice blend commonly found in US an dis a ready to use Masala. It’s not a curry. Curry is the dish’s name. A mixture of spices (Masala) with vegetables - Spices blended for specific applications - Spice blends reflect regional preferences From mild to fiery North- mild, sweet, creamy, and nutty South- fiery, pungent, and coconutty If not vegetarian, may contain chicken, fish, mutton, pork A well-balanced Indian meal combines: 6 “basic” tastes- sour, bitter, pungent/spicy, briny/salty Traditionally these were to be balanced in an Indian meal. Combining various tastes/textures is believed to prevent the onset of disease 5 textures -Foods that need no chewing -Foods that are licked -Foods that are sucked -Foods that are drunk Typical Indian Meal Rice/flat bread, Dhal, Vegetable dishes, Animal Foods, Fried wafer, Chutney and pickles, Salads, Salt, Water, Desserts and sweets -Meal centerpiece is a large serving of rice or bread -Accompanied by many spicy dishes -None is a ‘main dish’. They all have equal importance Flat bread Roti or Chapati- grilled then charred Puri- deep fried party food Paratha- grilled (layered fat via folding or coiling dough Homemade flat breads- staple in North. South uses bread too (made from flour) but their staple is flat bread Naan- leavened wheat dough enriched with yogurt, ghee, egg Dosa (L) (rice flour pancakes) and Idli (steamed, leavened rice bread) Rice based breads common in South Rice is common in south and central region Eaten throughout meal Plain or flavored with coconut, lemon, tamarind Mixed with yogurt Wheat is the dominant grain in the North Rice is the dominant grain in the south Basmati rice is popular in the US- in India, it’s only popular in the north Dahl (lentils in Hindi): Indian comfort food Many varieties that differ in color, flavor and texture Most meals contain at least one dhal dish plus other dishes that use dhal in combination with vegetables or meats -curries, breads, pancakes, snacks, salads, etc. Dahls are used to balance the flavor of a meal Desserts and sweets -Usually served with the meal -Often eaten first as an appetite stimulant -Many are milk based-yogurt, milk, or coconut milk as ingredients but may contain lentils, nuts, raisins -Typically very sweet Animal food -Animal muscle foods are more important in the diets of Muslims, Parsees, and Sikhs -Regionality: meat consumption is least common in the South Red meats: beef if rarely eaten due to Hindu influence Fish: important on East and West coast Milk/buttermilk: cooking medium (coconut milk used in South) Yogurt: used for flavor, consistency in curries, cools hot and spicy foods Fried wafer: a savory with a crispy texture -Often crumbled over rice to add texture -Also consumed as a snack -Made from split peas or lentils and salt, maybe fried Vegetable dish: always cooked, boiled, stuffed, mashed, fried Thickener Salads include yogurt based (Raita) or fresh vegetable-based Typically prepared with a souring agent, oil, and spices; makes taste more smooth Salt is always included Boiled and filtered water is the preferred beverage with the meals (Water identified as nectar in Vedas) Indian meals Seating -Meals are eaten while seated on low stool or pillow or floor -Eat with right hand only Serving -Thali: large plate or platter on which the entire meal is placed -Katoris: small bowls that contain the gravy or sauced items -Banana or plantain leaf may be used to serve the meal in the poorer households 1/3 of the world’s population uses their hands to eat (Africa and India) 1/3 uses knives, forks, and spoons 1/3 uses chopsticks