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Psych Notes: Echolocation

by: Monica Notetaker

Psych Notes: Echolocation PSYC049

Marketplace > University of California Riverside > PSYC049 > Psych Notes Echolocation
Monica Notetaker

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About this Document

Notes on Week2
Your Perceptual Superpowers
Lawrence Rosenblum
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC049 at University of California Riverside taught by Lawrence Rosenblum in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
27 September 2016 You Are Always Imitating ● Helps you perceive better ● Your imitation helps your interaction ● Your brain shares action and perception ● You automatically synchronize your actions with others ● You imitate gaze and it helps you perceive You Are Always Lipreading ● Sue Thomas, an expert lipreader ● You use visual speech whenever it’s available ● Visual speech automatically integrates with heard speech ● Your speech brain treats visual speech like sound ● You can recognize people from visual speech Your Senses Never Work Alone ● You use multiple senses to stand still ● You perceive attractiveness from smell, sound, and sight ● Your brain is designed around multisensory input ● Your brain can compensate from minor losses ● Nearsighted people have better peripheral hearing Human Echolocation ● Blind individuals ○ Facial vision (re: awareness) ­ feel tense as approaching to the  object ○ Reflected footsteps (shoes help) ○ Cane hits; mouth clicks ● Sighted individuals ○ With 15 minutes of practice ○ Object distance, shape and texture ○ Moving & stationary listeners Information for Human Echolocation ● Available to stationary and moving ● Listeners:  ● Time delay of reflected sound ○ Useful at distances > 2 meters ● Intensity ratio of emitted to reflected sound ○ Brain uses this to echolocate sound ○ Useful at distance > 2 meters ● Ripple noise pitch ○ Interference between emitted and reflected sound ○ Useful at distances < 2 meters The Expert Echolocator ● Experts’ accuracy is comparable to visual resolution of the sighted: 1.2 dg ● Expert skill is related to age of blindness onset ● Echolocation reflected sound activates visual brain areas ○ ­vs. Just clicks (auditory brain) Echolocating size induces size­weight illusion  29 September 2016 How Important is Your Sound? ● Many early echolocation experiments conducted with synthetic sound sources ○ White noise,  tones, clicks ● Ambient sound ○ Seashell resonance ● Blind Children detect: ○ Presence of 4’ panel, 6’ cardboard signs ○ Corridor intersections ○ Walls for guidance of walking ● Limitations of the sonar metaphor ○ “Spelunkers’ metaphor ○ You hear ambient acoustics Hearing Lessons From Hollywood ● Keep audience ‘in the scene’ ● Theatre becomes an extension of the scene’s space ● Any glitch can take the audience out ○ Soundtrack must match the scene ■ Poorly dubbed films Lesson 1: We are exquisitely sensitive to how rooms structure sound ­The visible and audible spaces must match Problem: depicted scene’s acoustic = sound stage acoustics The acoustic space must be modified Jay Patterson: sound mixer ­ “every space has an acoustic signature” ● single handclap provides necessary reflective structure information ● baffles and blankets positioned to modify the acoustics space ● multiple microphones positioned to capture this restructured space Sandy Berman: sound designer ● post­production foley and looping ● room tone recordings of set ● ‘World­izing’ ­  refers to a technique Walter Murch developed  early in his career where he would take a piece of music, dialogue or FX,  reproduce it in a real space using a portable tape machine and speaker, and then  re­record it on another machine in an attempt to inform the original sound with  some of the acoustic properties of the space.  ● Convolution ­ are the fold and wrinkles of the cortex of the brain.  When something is described as convoluted it implies it is twisting, folding, and  complicated. ● Preferred: literal recreation of acoustic space ○ Movable reflectors, baffles, blankets “Nothin’ like  the real thing” ● Looping problem: actor cannot hear recreated acoustic Hearing Rooms ● Can we recognize rooms based on how the structure emitted sounds? ○ Four rooms ○ Multiple emitted sounds


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