Chapter 5 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Ahmed on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101.0 at University of Georgia taught by Amy Ross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Cultural Geographies Chapter 5 What is “culture”? “…Learned collective human behavior, as opposed to instinctive, or inborn behavior.” –Jordan-Bychkov p.2 “A shared set of meanings that is lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life.” –Know and Marston p.154 Material and Non- Material Culture Material Culture: “all objects or things made and used by members of a cultural group” (Jordan-Bychkov) o The stuff people leave behind; tools, vases, pyramids Non-material Culture: “wide range of beliefs, values, myths, and symbolic meanings transmitted across generations” Cultural Geography There are place-based interactions between culture and the global political/economic forces There is a two-way relationship between geography and culture o Culture and place are a two way process We put our cultural stamp on places Places also affect us o Example Transgender in Thailand Folk Culture and Popular Culture Folk culture: traditional practices of small groups, especially rural people who typical have relatively homogeneous and stable beliefs and values Popular Culture: produced by relatively heterogeneous groups of people, closely connected to consumerism and/ or urban lifestyles. Change frequently o Often to do with trends in clothing /eating o Food /Drink o Music/ Language Rap music Is popular culture placeless? Kinda o Answer for the test^ Shared knowledge of what your going to get at a certain place, like gas station off an exit Could be slightly unique Cultural Geographies Chapter 5 Some Key Terms Cultural Trait: a single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular group Rite of Passage: acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in life. o Getting married, Bar Mitzvah Cultural Complex: the combination of traits and characteristics of a particular group o Parades, Stories, Santa, Day of the Dead Celebration Culture accumulates across scales o Individual beliefs all the way to group beliefs Cultural System Broader than cultural complex, may have variations within it. o Is there an “American” culture? Thanksgiving Football o More of a tossed salad than a melting pot Live together but keep our cultural differences “A collection of interacting components that, taken together, shape a group’s collective identity” (p164)- place and territory, shared history preferences, language, religion Distinctiveness between regions o North vs. South You guys vs. Y’all o Urban environments usually more accepting of different lifestyles Religious, Nonreligious, Gay Straight, etc. Traditional Western View: Individuals have a core identity o I think because I am o “Born this way” Social Sciences: Individual identity is shaped by society o Government o Friends/ family o Religion o Media o School o Workplace Identity and Culture Cultural Geographies Chapter 5 Identity: sense that people make of themselves through their subjective feelings based on their everyday experiences in wider society o Several cultural practices regulate and shape key aspects of identity o Individuals cannot remove themselves from culture/ society o Can’t conceive a person without taking into account where they are from (their culture) Culture and Sexuality What is considered normal? How does this change? o Varies by place and time Where do certain forms of sexuality take place? o LGBT safe places Culturally determined How are sexual identities learned or contested through cultural practices? o Parents, friends, administrators give signals of what is acceptable and not o Interracial marriage, gay marriage Culture and Race/ Ethnicity Ethnicity: system of identifying groups of common ancestry based on perceived or actual commonalities in language, religion, etc. Race: social classification of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics o Phonotypical (how people look) Hair, skin, eye color o No race gene… socially constructed Not real (biologically) but real (life consequences) o Racism: act of believing someone is inferior or superior based on skin color o White privilege: set of positive things that come with being identified as white Culture and Gender Gender: socially constructed differences between men and women- related to gender roles, notions of masculine and feminine, power relations. o Similar elements to race o Sex is genetic, XY/XX, biologically determined Gender roles o Maternity/ paternity leave Cultural Geographies Chapter 5 o Professions o Children’s toys Gender dichotomies Barbie/ G.I. Joe Boys wear blue, girls wear pink “The UN has not found a single country in the world where its women are treated as well as its men. As best women have achieved near-equality with men in some countries, whereas in other countries the level of development of women lags far behind the level of men.” Based off: o Gender-related Development Index (GDI) Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes o Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision- making. Cultural Geography and Identity Believes are consistently changing and constructed Some key points on culture Culture is comprised of both material practices and symbolic meanings Culture cannot be understood outside of its connection to other social, political, and economic processes Our own identity (and that of a specific groups) is shaped by cultural (socially produced) ideas regarding sexuality, ethnicity, race, and gender. At the same time, these shifting and hybridizing ideas are creating new cultural identities. A Few More Points on Culture & Identity Gender Identity: one’s personal experience of gender Feminism and Gender: Draws attention to the “socially created difference in power between males and females that given and advantage to the former over the latter’ (168) Identity and Disability: “a physical or mental condition that limits a person’s movements, senses, or activities.” (172) o Most society’s assume everyone has the “same” able body Intersectionality: “is recognition of the way that different forms or system of oppression, dominations, or discrimination overlap” (168) o All have these things, may be… Cultural Geographies Chapter 5 Certain religion, sexuality, etc. What theories do Cultural Geographers use to understand the relationship between people and the world? Actor Network Theory Culture is influenced by the networks of human and non- human actors within which we are embedded. Non-Representational Theory Human life is a process that is always unfolding, always becoming different, often outside of conscious human thought (i.e. a process of becoming). Materialism Material objects have force and intensity in the world, and cultural beliefs and values gain prominence and power through material form. Globalization and Cultural Change Americanization Localization A global culture?
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