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Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean- Fanis

by: Regan Notetaker

Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean- Fanis BIOL 1030

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Science > BIOL 1030 > Biology 1030 with Velta Napolean Fanis
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genetics, cell division
Exploring Life
Velta Napolean-Fanis
Class Notes
Genetics, Cell, division
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Velta Napolean-Fanis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Exploring Life in Science at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Biology 1030 Week 6: Velta Napolean Fanis Lecture Notes 9/27/16 Meiosis: Reduction One cell divides twice to form 4 non-identical cells Meiosis: Gamete Formation -Germ cells undergo meiosis to form sex cells, the number of chromosomes are reduced. The result its 4 new haploid cells (gametes). -There are 2 nuclear divisions: Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2. Meiosis starts with a diploid cell. Homologues are the maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome. A sister chromatid is one of the two identical copies of a chromosome created during replication. The two sister chromatids are held together at a centromere. Interphase is NOT part of meiosis. Meiosis begins with a cell that has 46 chromosomes. 22 homologous pairs from each parent along with two additional chromosomes called sex cells (one from each parent). Homologous pairs replicate/ duplicate- this means we get 92 In preparation for Meiosis, the chromosomes replicate. Meiosis Division 1: Separating the Homologues. Outcome of Meiosis: the creation of four haploid daughter cells, each with one set of chromosomes which contains a completely unique combination of traits. Sexual reproduction promotes diversity in species. Crossing over occurs during prophase 1 when homologous chromosomes are in synapsis Independent assortment: random sorting of chromosomes when chromosome number is reduced. All gametes are genetically different. Fertilization causes new genetic combinations (unique set of genetic materials). Meiosis errors: Nondisjunction Nondisjunction: improper separation of chromosomes when the chromosome number is reduced in Meiosis 1. Result: gametes have abnormal number of chromosomes. This can cause spontaneous abortion, still born, or genetic disorders. Examples: Down syndrome (47 chromosomes), turner syndrome (45), Edward Syndrome- Trisomy 13 (47), Kleinfelter Syndrome: Extra X chromosome (XXY), Triple X Syndrome- extra X chromosome. Symptoms: IQ < 70, heart defects, short stocky body features. Women over the age of 35 have a higher chance of having a downs child. Turner Syndrome: XO, 45 total chromosomes, no mental effects, sterile, various physical effects 1/5000 girls will be born with turner syndrome. Testing for genetic defects: Ultrasound, amniocentesis- removal of amniotic fluid around fetus to collect fetal cells. Performed at 14 weeks. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)- removal of placental cells, cultured and karyotyped. Sources of Genetic Variation 1. Crossing over: mixture of maternal and paternal genetic material 2. Homologous reassortment: random mix How is sex determined in humans? The male sex cells (sperm) carry x and y sperms Lecture Notes 9/29/16: Genetics Test #2 on October 13 2016 Genetics: is the study of how traits, determined by genes, are passed on and how those genes express themselves in physical characteristics of an individual. genes are instruction sets for biochemical, physical, and behavioral traits Genes may exist in alternative forms called alleles (example: tall or short) Heredity: passing of characteristics from parents to offspring Genotype: set of genes that code for a specific trait Example: Dominant: Tongue Roller (RR) Recessive: Non Tongue Roller (rr) Phenotype: expression of a gene i.e. blue eyes Inheritance Gregor Mendel: Austrian monk (1822-1884) who studied pea plants, father of genetics During that time, the idea of “blending” was widely accepted (offspring is an exact average of 2 parents) 1. Principle of Dominance: in an individual, the alleles can be the same (HH, hh) or different (Hh) where the dominant allele is expressed. 2. Law of Independent Assortment: Traits on different chromosomes are not linked. During Meiosis 1, the chromosomes randomly separate 3. Law of Segregation: When gametes are formed, only one copy of a gene gets placed into each gamete. Mendel is also credited with the idea of Test Cross. Mendel’s Pea Plants: single observable traits- pea color, pod color, shape, height, flower color Pea plants were: pure bred, sexually reproducing, self fertilizing, bisexual He crossed the pure bred varieties: pure bred tall plants crossed with pure bred short plants resulting in all tall offspring (no blending and no short plants) F1 gen Then he let all the tall hybrid offspring self pollinate to produce the F2 gen. The result was short plant trait reappeared in ¼ the population, but still no blending of traits was observed. Homozygous: RR, rr, dominant or recessive consistent genotype Heterozygous: Rr, individuals show the dominant trait but still have the recessive trait in a dormant form. The dominant allele is expressed if the individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous. The recessive allele is expressed if the individual is homozygous recessive. Punnett Squares are used to make predictions. The possible gametes made by each parent go in the rows and columns. This is based on the Law of Segregation. Example: long tail homozygous male (LL) crossed with short tail homozygous female (ll). Dihybrid Cross:  2 double heterozygotes (RrYy x RrYy) produces a 9:3:3:1 ratio 9/16 dominant for both traits st nd 3/16 dominant for 1 , rendssive for 2 st 3/16 dominant for 2 recessive for 1 1/16 recessive for both


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