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Psych 1101 Ch6 Notes

by: Hanna Notetaker

Psych 1101 Ch6 Notes Psyc 1101

Hanna Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned in class and also has information from the book.
Elementary Psycology
Kara A. Dyckman
Class Notes
psych, Psychology, psych1101
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psycology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Psych 1101 Ch6- Memory Three Processes of Memory  Memory: Information the brain receives, stores, and may retrieve for later use 1. Encoding: The process in which information enters the memory system 2. Storage: The process of preserving information 3. Retrieval: The process of recalling stored information; assessing information encoded and stored in memory  Encephalitis: Inflammation in the temporal lobe due to herpes simplex virus The Information-Processing Model of Memory  Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Stages of Memory  Sensory Memory: All the information hitting your sensory receptors are retained for a fraction of a second o Has a very large capacity o Has a very short duration o Iconic Memory: Visual impressions have photo-like accuracy but are dissolved in less than a second o Eidetic Memory: The ability to remember an image for several minutes; description of said object not always completely accurate o Echoic Memory: Exact copies of sound last longer than visual impressions  Testing Sensory Memory o Whole Report Condition: participants are shown a group of letters and are asked to report as many items they can recall  Average recall: 4.5/12 letters (37.5%) o Partial Report Condition: tone played telling participants which row, out of a group of letters, to report on  Average recall: 75%-80% correct  Short-Term Memory: Temporarily maintains and processes a limited amount of information o Some sensory memory goes to short-term memory o Has a capacity of 5-9 items o Has a duration of 15-30 seconds  Distraction can reduce the amount of time information remains  As the amount of time increases, recall decreases o An output stage o Maintenance Rehearsal: Repetition of information in order to be remembered  Improving Short-Term Memory o Chunking: Grouping items (numbers, letters, etc.) into meaningful subsets  Working Memory: The maintenance and manipulation of information in the memory system; the processing of information in short-term memory o Central Executive: Directs attention, makes plans, and coordinates activities; part of its role is to determine what information is important o Visuospatial Sketchpad: Visual and spatial data are stored and manipulated o Phonological Loop: Verbal information o Episodic Buffer: Brings information together (visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop, and long-term memory) to solve problems, assign meaning, and make future plans  Long-Term Memory o Explicit Memory: Memories you are aware of (facts and experiences); can be consciously express  Semantic Memory: general facts that can relate to anyone (Ex: the sky is blue)  Episodic Memory: Memory of experiences in your life- when and where they occurred  Flashbulb Memory: Detailed memory of an emotional experience o Implicit Memory: Automatic or unconscious memory of something you know or know how to do  Procedural Memory: Memory where there is no conscious control to carry out a skill/activity  Priming: The exposure of one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus  Classical conditioning is another type of implicit memory Improving Memory Through Encoding  Recall Details o Mnemonic  Chunking  Method of Loci: A mental journey is created to help remember information  Organize Information/Hierarchical Structures o Information organized in meaningful categories  Automatic and Effortful Processing o Effortful Processing: Conscious effort put into encoding and storing information  Intentional and requires work o Automatic Processing: Little or no conscious effort required to encode information  Make Connections o Elaborative Rehearsal: Connecting new information to knowledge from long-term memory; deep level of encoding o Visualization  Give Yourself Time o Distributed Practice: Study sessions spread out over time/split into segments o Massed Practice: Cramming material in a long session without breaks; should be avoided  Get Some Rest o The brain needs rest in order to consolidate information o Awake rest: Doing mindless tasks allows your brain to consolidate information Retrieval and Forgetting  Recall vs Recognition o Recall: The process of retrieving information from long-term memory without the need for retrieval cues o Recognition: The process of matching new information to information stored in long- term memory o Recognition gives you retrieval cues o Serial Position Effect: The ability to recall items from a list depends on where they are located in the list o Primary Effect: The tendency to remember items from the beginning of a list o Recency Effect: The tendency to remember items at the ends of a list Encoding Specify  Retrieval Cues: Stimuli that help retrieve stored information difficult to access; Relies on context o Context Dependent Memory: Memories are easier to access when encoding and retrieval occurs in same context  Encoding Specificity Principle: It is easier to recall information when the context and cues during encoding are similar to those during retrieval State-Dependent Memory  It is easier to remember information when moods and emotions are similar during encoding and retrieval


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