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SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 6

by: Kristy Trahan

SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 6 SOCL 2001

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Sociology > SOCL 2001 > SOCL 2001 Section 6 Chapter 6
Kristy Trahan

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Introduction to Sociology
T. Kazi
Class Notes
SOCL2001, Introduction to Sociology, tasiakazi
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCL 2001 at Louisiana State University taught by T. Kazi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan Chapter 6  Deviance: variation from a set of norms or shared social expectations o Deviants: people who violate these shared expectations (viewed as simply being different)  Views of Deviance o Traditional Views:  Don’t consider poverty and how that can make a person a drug addict  Don’t consider the context  1. Absolutist and immoral view  Are always deviant (absolutism) and bad or wrong (immoral)  Homosexuality, criminal acts, dishonesty, or the use of psychoactive drugs  2. Medical view  Deviance is assumed to be pathological o Deviants are “sick people” and that society is unhealthy  Rape, child abuse, robbery, mental disorders, and alcoholism  No grey area: good vs. bad/ health vs. illness  3. Statistical View  Being different from the average people make you a deviant  We all are deviants in some aspects  Example: left handed, black hair, member of a minority group  The relative nature of deviance: can be interpreted in the socio-cultural context in which it happens (cultural relativism) o Using left hand while you eat in the Muslim community is prohibited  Deviant Acts o Variation by time  Example: cigarette- many states and countries first banned cigarettes, but then they realized how much profit they could make from tobacco (capitalism) even though it is unhealthy  After discovering that cigarettes can cause cancer, many states tried to illegalize it, however this proved too difficult, so the solution was to label all packs the surgeon general warning o Variation by place:  Behaviors viewed as deviant in one location, society, or culture may be considered non-deviant in others  Having multiple wives in African tribes show wealth, prestige, and high status; in the U.S., this is a punishable offense o Variation by situation:  Behavior that is defined as deviant in one situation may not be in another, even in the same time period and geographical area  Man dressing up as a women: many countries would send this person to jail because it is so shameful o Variation by social status:  Club house member- Mafia Don (big smuggler) would be granted entrance to this club since he makes so rich, but no entry for prostitutes and SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan distributors even though they help to sell or contribute to the earnings of the big mafia boss o Variation by gender:  Topless (easy for men)- female nudity in most countries is unacceptable  If there are three men (middle-eastern looking man with a beard, African American man, and a white man) and three women and a terrorist act were to happen, the first to be accused would be the men, specifically in this order- middle eastern, black, and then the white man  Social functions of deviance (the more positive sides) o Define the limit of social tolerance  By indicating the extent to which norms can be violated without provoking a reaction  Helps to clarify the boundaries of social norms and the limits of behavioral diversity  Bullying used to be considered normal behavior until schools implemented “bullying policies” o Increase the solidarity  Having a common enemy tends to unite group members  Muslims throwing stones at policemen, setting fire to religious places, etc.  There used to be a lot pressure on the homosexuals, but now it is a sort of norm since they stood up and spoke for themselves o Safety valve for social discontent  When people desire things that the social norms do not permit them to have  May become frustrated and angry and attack norms or even attempt to destroy the social system  By cheating on paying income tax, they express their dissatisfaction with the government for whatever reason  Doing drugs because of job frustrations or an unhappy marriage  There are other ways to express these frustrations, but these are the least injurious to the society o Indicates defects in the existing social organizations  High rates of some deviance may expose problems in the social order  If the prisons, a major source of revenue for Louisiana, are almost full and there is nowhere else to put them, this could harm Louisiana’s economy  Something is wrong in the system, why is there so many people getting arrested? o Lead to social change  Can involve modifications in the existing structure, modifications in behavior, or changes in the definitions of deviance  Due to the resistance from the minority/homosexuals, they have gained acceptance and gained many of their rights back (right to vote)  Dysfunctions!!! (out-weigh the positives)- disrupts the order and predictability of life o Disrupt social order  So much chaos, conflict, and unsteadiness if deviance acts increase  So many acts against the norms that it will break down SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan  The effect of an alcoholic father on a family system o All routines and social expectations are subject to being disturbed by him o Disrupt the will of other to conform  If norm violations are unpunished or if some members of society refuse to obey established rules, the desire to conform is decreased  Person who is not obeying the rule but have no punishment  Speeding and conforming to the rule of the speed limit  If others are speeding without consequence, then you will eventually do the same o Destroy trust  Social life is based in part on the assumption that other people are hoest and trustworthy  Widespread deviance destroys our trust and confidence in others  We then become more dependent on the legal system to define, enforce, and support the law o Divert resources  The government is diverting its resources to rehabilitation and control efforts; there are more fruitful ways to use these resources o Deviance is … neither all good or all bad o Inevitable part of every society  Deviance and Crime o Violation of criminal statutory law (specific punishment) o Types:  Violent crime: involve victim  Assault, homicide, rape, and robbery  White-collar crimes: FOR PERSONAL GAIN, by someone respectable  Individuals are usually corporate or government employees  Stock manipulation- Bernie Madoff was cheating nearly five thousand investors and taking their money (net worth of sixty-five billion)  Felony: punishable for 1 year or more  Organized Crime (pretty much its own business): drug dealers, gambling business, syndicate (a channel for all the people involved that help different parties- human trafficking)  Juvenile Crime: under 18  Type of crime doesn’t matter- based on age  Sent to correctional center because the context around their crime may have been against them (home situation)  Deviance and social control o External control: the responses of others to a member’s behavior  1. Informal: somebody else is pressuring/judging- parents with their children  2. Formal- law enforcement agency o Internal control: Self-control, ego, strength  You yourself understand what you should do and what the limits are SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan  The development of self  Theories of Deviance o Biological- genetics matter, different XY chromosome formation; physiological, anatomical matter  Reasons how a person is made a criminal and why they do these things  William Sheldon (1940)- attempted to link body type to behavior  1. Endomorphs- soft, round  2. Mesomorphs- athletic, muscular  3. Ectomorphs- fragile, skinny  Found a disproportionate percentage of criminals to be mesomorphs o Psychological- focuses on the mind more than the body  Mental illness  Sociological Theories explaining Deviance o Strain and Anomie Theory (Merton, 1957)  Derived from Emile Durkheim  Most cases norms are clear, but sometimes (turmoil, war) people find themselves in unfamiliar situations  Anomie, social normlessness occurs  Deviance arises, tension between culturally prescribed goals and socially approved ways of achieving them  Example: racial minorities, poor, teenagers o Hispanic children know they need to get a good education to do well in life  However, the schools don’t want these students at their schools because they know they won’t do well on exams and it will lower the school’s reputation o The child turns to robbery and crime to get by and make a little extra money  Know the goal, but don’t know how to achieve the goal o Do stupid things (deviance)  5 ways to achieve the goals  1. Innovation- accepts social goals, but rejects normatively prescribed means o Good grades by cheating  2. Ritualism- follows rules rigidly o Lower middle class Americans do not take chances, less major cultural goals, but more petty rules  Don’t want more frustration or tension in their lives  3. Retreatism- drastic mode of adaptation o Drug addicts live in their own group/society and have no goals  4. Rebellion- withdraw their allegiance to a society that is unjust o Gay right movement, women’s right movement,  Advocate for new values and modify social structure SOCL 2001 Section6 Kristy Trahan o In southeast Asia, supporting women’s rights is a deviant act in their culture  5. Conformity- focus to their goals and the means is non deviant  Criticism: Merton’s underlying assumptions- deviance is disproportionately concentrated in the lower socioeconomic people o Can’t say most of the impoverished people are deviant o Conflict Theory  Tension between the powerful (Bourgeoisie) and powerless (Proletariat)  Powerful exploits powerless  This exploitation causes institutionalized violence  Legal authorities ought to be fair, but they are unjust- they favor the rich  Criticism:  Nonpolitical deviations are ignored  Causes of deviant acts are ignored  Utopian communist society without crime? o Cultural Transmission Theory (subcultural theory)  Chicago School, 1929  Through socialization process or meeting and socializing with peers who do deviant acts, they could rub off on you and influence you to also do these deviant acts o Labelling Theory  Some behaviors are labelled as deviant  Deviance is a relative condition  Two people, same crime, different meaning  Being labelled as deviant always deviant  Terrorists who wear hijabs make people associate everyone who wears a hijab as a terrorist  Highly negative labelled stigma  Criticism:  Difficult to test empirically  Some powerful people are labelled as deviant o Social Control Theory (Hirschi, 1969)  4 types of social bonds  1. Attachment: family  2. Commitment: career  3. Involvement: “midnight basketball” for teenagers o Some activities bring positive behavior o “The Gardening Project”  4. Belief: agreement with traditional moral standard


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