Biology 1113 Week 6 Notes
Biology 1113 Week 6 Notes Biology 1113
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1113 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Ball and Dr. Weinstein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biology 1113 in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Transduction Con’t. Second messengers Small, non-protein, water-soluble molecules Can easily spread a throughout message cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate ATP--> cAMP First messenger (signaling molecule) pairs with g protein-coupled receptor; GTP turns on (turns into GDP) and activates the G protein; G protein turns on the adenylyl cyclase enzyme; ATP is used to make cAMP (second messenger) Calcium Used as a second messenger in both G-pathways and tyrosine kinase receptor pathways Increasing Ca2+ concentrations cause a variety of responses Muscle contractions Secretion Cell division Level of Ca2+ is 10,000x higher outside of the cell than inside the cell Plenty of readily available second messengers Response Whole point of the signal is to elicit a response Nuclear response Happens in the nucleus Transcription factor Binds to specific genes in the DNA and turns them on Makes mRNA to produce a protein outside of the nucleus Cytoplasmic response Turns on an enzyme that is already there Faster response Specificity and Coordination of response All cells in your body contain the same DNA Different genes are turned on in different cells Different cells have different proteins Each pathway can have different responses, but the same receptors All depends on which genes are turned on Different cells have different proteins Termination of the signal In order to respond to new signal molecules, you have to be able to turn old signals off Binding to receptors is reversible The messengers to their inactive form GTP hydrolyzes to GDP cAMP to AMP Phosphatases remove phosphates to deactivate proteins Apoptosis Programed cell death Eliminates cells that are damaged, infected, or at the end of their lifespan Very organized and deliberate Cell shrinks and pinches off into little pieces DNA and organelles are chopped up and digested by surrounding cells Necessary for proper development Metabolism Metabolism- all of the chemical reactions that occur in our cells to keep us alive Catabolic Break things down "cats break things" Spontaneous Free energy Portion of a system's energy that can perform work Exergonic reaction Products have a lower amount of free energy that reactants No input of energy Requires enzyme as a catalyst Positive ∆G Anabolic Build things up Body builders use anabolic steroids Endergonic reaction Require an input of energy Products have more free energy than reactants Negative ∆G Energy- the capacity to cause change Kinetic Heat Kinetic energy associated with random movement of molecules Potential Chemical Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction In our food Use food to make ATP Thermodynamics- the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter 1st law- energy can be changed but not destroyed Food can be used as energy to run or stored as fat 2nd law- every energy transformation or transfer increases the entropy of the universe Entropy- measure of disorder/randomness We are not random, but we are not closed systems We interact with our environment Lots of the energy that goes through transformation is lost as heat, which increases the entropy in the universe How is work done in a cell? Cells do 3 main types of work Chemical Building complex structures Macromolecules Organelles Transport Cell membrane Active transport Mechanical Muscle contractions Energy coupling Use the energy from exergonic reactions to power endergonic reactions ATP Bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis Building block for RNA Spring-like structure Lots of tension Lots of potential energy Exergonic reaction ATP + water = ADP + P i Requires 7.3 kcal/mol A phosphate group is cleaved off Energy is given off ADP is more stable ATP causes… Motor proteins to move Transport proteins to change shape and move solutes Regeneration of ATP Reverse reaction must be endergonic Produces 7.3 kcal/mol Exergonic reactions must provide necessary energy Cellular respiration Light energy Without this ability, the organism will die Energy and Enzymes Just because a reaction is spontaneous, does not mean it is fast Enzymes are proteins (mostly) which act as a catalyst Not consumed by the reaction Act by lowering the activation energy Cannot make an endergonic reaction exergonic Can only speed up reactions that would occur anyway Starting molecules generally have to be contorted into an unstable form for a reaction to occur Enzymes do not change the starting or ending energy of the reaction Only changes ∆G Ways to affect the reaction Stress the bonds in molecules Enzyme specificity Substrate: reactant acted on by the enzyme The reaction catalyzed by the enzyme is very specific Active site: region that binds with the substrate Only a specific substrate can fit Factors that Affect enzyme activity Proteins function best under certain conditions Temp pH Cofactors Non-protein helpers Inhibitors Competitors Resemble substrate and competes for active site Non-competitors Bind to enzyme somewhere other than the active site Causes a conformational changes Toxins and poisons work like this Enzyme regulation Metabolic pathways are tightly regulated by controlling when and where enzymes are active Allosteric regulation Binding of a regulatory molecule at one site affects the activity at a separate active site Can either stimulate or inhibit activity Works as an on and off switch Makes a stable and inactive form Cooperativity Binds to an active site Stable and active Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are reverse of each other Cellular respiration Break down glucose Photosynthesis Build glucose Overview of cellular respiration Potential energy stored in food must be broken down to release energy Two main pathways Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Redox reactions Transfers electrons Oxidation = loss of electrons Reduction = gain electrons
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