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Continuation of Chapter 5 and Complete Chapter 6 and 7

by: Lauren Krahling

Continuation of Chapter 5 and Complete Chapter 6 and 7 Hist 201

Marketplace > Coastal Carolina University > History > Hist 201 > Continuation of Chapter 5 and Complete Chapter 6 and 7
Lauren Krahling
GPA 3.9

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This is History 201 Chapter 5, 6, and 7.
U.S. History
John Navin
Class Notes
U.S, history
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Krahling on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 201 at Coastal Carolina University taught by John Navin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Wilderness Road - Connected Kentucky to Tennessee and was an old Indian path - Road travel east to west Erie Canal - built in 1825, connected bodies of water reducing freight costs (crops, ect.) connecting Buffalo New York to Albany (Hudson River) makes New York very valuable - animals stand on size and push-ups through Land grants for railroads - the government did not build railroads, they gave railroad companies grants for land - Americans reverse engineered British railroad Clipper Ships - Long distance trade ships to China and Japan, many were sent from Boston (Cape Anne) Telegraph - Was invented in 1832 by Samuel Morse, in 1840 it became revolutionary Cotton boom - Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, was great for the southern economy and it expands slavery Deere’s Steel Plow - John Deere, it cuts through thick ground. Made Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky the “bread basket” McCormack’s Mechanical Reaper - the mechanical reaper required two people, allow farmers to harvest more wheat. Speeds up western migration, output and production Slater’s sttton Yarn Mill - 1 Water Mill, Rhode Island Impact of 1807 Embargo Act - Crushes Economy but made American’s produce goods instead of buying from Europe Lowell factories - Boston Associates want textile mills so they tour and copy their ideasà Industrials espionage – - Spectacular achievement at first until other mills began to develop. To match production they began speed ups, increased hours, and pay cuts. - The women workers were the first to ever strikeà unfortunately they were replaceableà immigrants got their jobs but didn’t receive the benefits the women workers did Immigration - Irish accounted for 43% of the population - 1860: 1.6 million Irish, 1.2 million German - Irish came because of potato famine so many had no $, whereas Germans came for political reasons - Irish had Boss ward’s that helped get them jobs, food, housing in return they were told who to vote for giving Irish a powerful political standing Popular Culture - Cock fights, Alcohol consumption, Taverns, Theater, Minstrel shows, newspapers with stories Trade unions/Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) - National Trade Union created in 1884 - Commonwealth v. Hunt- supreme court deems unions legal and workers are allowed to strike Labor Union goals: 1.) Free public school education 2.) Abolish jail/ debt act 3.) 10-hour work day Labor Parties - (1854) Nativists form Know-Nothing Party (American Party)à anti immigrant organization, mainly Irish because their dominating them politically 1.) want to ban immigrants from political standings 2.) want to ban immigrants for 21 from nationalizing so that they can’t vote Rise of Professions - School training programs - Improvements in Medicine and Science - Formal study of fields Women: - Teaching and nurses CHAPTER 10 Post-war economic boom/speculation - Economy is taking off too much, borrowing too much - The National Bank has expired and state banks begin making money and giving loans with no regulations Re-charter of Bank of U.S., 1816 - 1816-1836 reestablished but doesn’t work as it should Protective Tariff of 1816 - Passed by Monroe, first time Protective Tariff has been passed Henry Clay’s “American System” 1.) Support National Bank 2.) Tariffs Protecting Manufacturing 3.) Support for Internal Improvements (Roads, canals, etc.) Era of Good Feelings/Election of 1820 - Era of good feelings was a time of Political harmony - James Monroe runs unopposed and becomes president making Democratic Republicans the main party Treaties with England: - Rush-Bagot Treaty- Agreemeth to demilitarize the Great Lakes - Convention of 1818- 49 Parallel establishes boundary between America and Canada, also decides to share Oregon Country Treaty with Spain: Adams-Onis Treaty - Indians attack American settlers and Andrew Jackson forces them down to Florida where he hangs them. Spain realizes that they cant control that much land because they are weak in power so they give Florida to America and move the boundary to west of the Red River (Firm Boundary Line) Panic of 1819 - There is a drop in money for cotton leading to a four-year recession - Many lost their jobs, homes, etc. Missouri Compromise - States determine whether there will be slavery or not - 1819 there are 22 states, 11 are free states, 11 are slave states - Balance of votes in Senate is important - Missouri has over 60,000 people and wants to become a state, they draft a constitution in favor of slavery, changing the voting dynamic in the Senate - Maine decides to break off and become a state as well in order to even out the Senate votes - Territories that aren’t states yet (36 degrees 30 minutes) must be free states when developed (southerners are mad because they aren’t going to be able to match that amount of free state Senate votes Monroe Doctrine 1.) Americans aren’t subject to European colonization 2.) Any attempt to colonize in Americas will be seen as a threat to the U.S. 3.) Promise not to bother existing colonies 4.) U.S. wont mettle in European affairs Election of 1824 - John Quincy Adams (DR) Northern Support - William Crofford (DR) Southern Support - Henry Clay (DR) Western Support - Andrew Jackson (DR) National Candidate because of the Spain Treaty, and other well know battles - Jackson receives the most votes but doesn’t receive over 50% so the vote goes to the House of Representatives “corrupt bargain” - Its mainly between Adams and Jackson, so Adams goes to Clay and offers him position of Secretary of State if he gets the support of his voters - Adams win and Jackson claims that was a “corrupt bargain” - 1828- Adams raises tariffs - Calhoun writes South Carolina Exposition and Protestà about the tariff of 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” Election of 1828 - Jackson v. Adams - Jackson creams Adams, becoming president Chapter  6       -­‐Confederation  government  and  States  have  war  debt-­‐  because  goverment  is  weak  they   cant  get  the  money  they  need     -­‐It’s  the  Critical  Period-­‐  Were  America  could  have  failed     -­‐Dissatisfied  officers  call  a  meeting  in  Newburg  where  they  say  were  going  to  pull  militia   from  eastern  states  leaving  them  vulnerable  to  get  there  5  year  pensionsà  Newburg   Conspiracy     -­‐Washington  hears  about  this,  calls  them  out,  and  it  falls  apart     -­‐Continental  Congress  creates  the  Northwest  Ordinance  of  1787:  land  above  the  Ohio   River  that  is  U.S.  territory  but  not  owned  by  a  state       1.)  Establishes  the  way  a  territory  can  become  a  state         -­‐Must  have  over  60,000  people           -­‐no  fewer  than  3  states  out  of  it  but  no  more  that  5         2.)  Then  they  can  build  an  assembly  but  will  still  not  have  votes  yet       3.)  Draft  a  constitution  making  it  become  a  state       4.)  None  of  the  states  developed  on  that  land  can  have  slavery     To  sell  the  Land:       -­‐  A  grid  system  was  createdà36  blocksàtownshipà  one  block  for  schools       -­‐  Done  so  Federal  government  can  sell  it  for  revenue         -­‐  Wants  to  sell  to  investors  for  more  money         -­‐  Buying  wholesaleàselling  retail  price       Effects  of  the  war   -­‐Poor  agriculture     -­‐No  longer  can  sell  on  British  controlled  Islands   -­‐Paper  currency  is  losing  its  value  and  there’s  not  enough  to  go  around       Shays  Rebellion   -­‐Massachusetts:  Farmers  are  losing  there  farms  because  they  cant  afford  it  so  they  go  shut   down  courts  with  their  guns.  The  Governor  sends  the  militia  to  stop  them,  becomes  a  battle   -­‐       Chapter  7     United  State  in  the  1790’s:   A. Boundaries-­‐  New  country  under  the  Constitution     B. Population-­‐  4  million  peopleà  750,000  were  African     C. Voting  Rights-­‐  Adult  white  males  with  a  certain  amount  of  property   D. Exports/  Farming  versus  Industry-­‐  majority  of  the  country  was  devoted  to  agriculture   E. New  States-­‐  Vermont,  Kentucky,  Tennessee   F. Invention  of  the  Cotton  Gin-­‐  Eli  Whitney  makes  cotton  a  booming  crop,  leads  to   westward  migration   G. Status  of  slavery-­‐  Cotton  Gin  makes  slaves  necessary  in  the  south       The  Constitution:   A. Bill  of  Rights-­‐  10  amendments  (Alexander  Hamilton  says  this  is  a  bad  idea  because  it   implies  that  the  government  is  giving  our  “Natural  Rights”   st B. Impact  on  “Official”  religions-­th  1  amendment  prohibits  state  religion     C. Importance  of  the  10  amendment-­‐  If  the  constitution  says  the  government  can  do   it,  they  can.  If  the  states  want  to  do  something  that’s  not  in  the  constitution,  they   can  (Banks,  Seat  belts,  Abortion)     Washington’s  Cabinet:     A. John  Adams-­‐  Federalist,  Vice  president     B. Thomas  Jefferson-­‐  Democratic  Republican,  Secretary  of  State  (Deals  with   Ambassadors),  from  Virginia,  plantation  owner   C. Alexander  Hamilton-­‐  Federalist,  Secretary  of  Security  (get  America  out  of  debt),  born   in  the  Caribbean,  Implied  Powers-­‐  though  its  not  in  the  constitution,  if  it  benefits  the   people  they  should  be  able  to  do  it   D. Edmund  Randolph-­‐  Secretary  General       Jefferson’s  view  of  America:     -­‐People  make  money  off  the  land  in  the  south  (agrarian)  and  develop  farming  lands  west   of  the  Appellation  Mountains  making  people  self  sufficient       Hamilton’s  view  of  America:     -­‐Wants  to  become  a  commercial  and  economic  power  like  England  with  manufacturing   and  cities     Hamilton’s  proposals:   A. Pay  state  debts  from  war-­‐  Same  as  C.     B. Place  excise  tax  on  liquor-­‐  Tax  on  people  who  produce  liquor     C. Pay  all  outstanding  government  debts-­‐  U.S.  must  have  good  credit  so  they  must  pay   back  their  I.O.U.’s     D. Create  Bank  of  America-­‐  Jefferson  says  no  because  its  not  in  the  constitution     E. Establish  protective  tariffs-­‐  Put  tariffs  on  English  products  making  American  products   be  bought         -­‐People  don’t  like  it  because  their  having  to  pay  more     Conflicting  Constitutional  Interpretation:   A. Loose  interpretation  based  on  doctrine  of  implied  powers-­‐     Federalists-­‐  “Implied  Powers”     Democratic  Republican  “Little  government  as                     possible”   Hamilton/  Adams         Madison/  Jefferson     B. Strict  interpretation  stressing  10  amendment-­‐     th   They  make  a  deal,  if  they  vote  for  the  assumption  plan  they  will  locate  the  government   somewhere  in  the  south,  Washington,  DC     Impact  of  the  French  Revolution  on  United  States:     -­‐War  between  English  and  French  during  the  Reign  of  Terror     A. Washington’s  proclamation  of  neutrality   B. Support  for  England-­‐  Americans  are  divided  on  who  they  want  to  help   FederalistsàEngland     C. Support  for  France  (Democratic  Republicans)  /  Jacobin  clubs  (Pro-­‐Franceàcollect  $)/   Citizen  Genet  (French  governor  sent  to  recruit  men)     Jays  Treaty  with  England     -­‐English  start  stopping  American  ships,  ceasing  goods,  and  forcing  crew  to  fight  with   England  or  go  to  jail.  Washington  sends  John  Jay  to  settle  dispute       Whiskey  Rebellion       -­‐Corn  Farmers  in  western  Pennsylvania  rebel  in  the  taxes  of  Hamilton’s  proposal     Pinckney’s  Treaty  with  Spain     -­‐Over  a  land  dispute  which  leads  Spain  to  disallow  Americans  to  use  their  Mississippi   Portsà  Pinckney  clarifies  Florida  boundary  and  gives  back  shipping  to  U.S.       Washington’s  Farewell  Speech       -­‐1796-­‐  warns  people  of  regionalism  (North  vs.  South)  and  Permanent  Foreign  Alliances       Presidential  elections     A. President-­‐  John  Adams  (North-­‐  Federalist)   B. Vice-­‐  President-­‐  Thomas  Jefferson  (South-­‐  Democratic  Republican)     XYZ  Affair     -­‐France  is  mad  at  us  for  not  helping  them  so  they  start  ceasing  ships  like  England  was  so   Adams  sends  a  Representative  to  solve  the  problemàFrench  say  they  need  to  pay  bribes  to  list   of  people  (listed  xyz)  à  Adams  creates  navy  and  sends  them  to  fight  French  in  Quasi-­‐war   causing  French  to  sign  a  treaty       Alien  and  Sedition  Acts-­‐     -­‐President  can  deport  foreign  people  and  you  can  NOT  criticize  the  government  or  you   get  thrown  into  jail     -­‐  Violates  Freedom  of  Speech  and  Freedom  of  Press     Kentucky  and  Virginia  Resolutions-­‐     -­‐Jefferson  tries  to  get  them  to  strike  down  the  Alien  and  Sedition  Acts  but  they  don’t   have  the  power  to  do  so,  that  lies  with  the  Supreme  Court       1800  Presidential  Election   A. Republican  Victory-­‐  Want  Adams  out  of  office  so  they  elect  Jefferson  and  Burr  but   they  tie     B. Settled  in  House  of  Representatives-­‐  Vote  36  times  making  Jefferson  win     Judiciary  Act  of  1801   A. Midnight  Judges-­‐  Adams  appoints  judges  before  leaving  office   B. Marbury  vs.  Madison-­‐  Marbury  was  supposed  to  become  a  judge  but  Jefferson   stopped  the  Judiciary  Act,  supreme  court  determines  the  constitutionality  of  the  law     C. Supreme  Court  declares  Judiciary  Act  unconstitutional       Chief  Justice  John  Marshall/  Federal  vs.  State  Power     -­‐Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  wants  to  strengthen  the  government  not  the  states     North  African  Pirates-­‐     -­‐Tripolià  Europeans  pay  pirates  not  to  attack  but  Jefferson  sends  Navy  over  to  stop   them  from  attacking  our  shipsà  we  agree  to  pay  a  small  fee  if  they  let  us  go     The  Louisiana  Purchase-­‐     -­‐French  had  Louisianaà  lost  it  to  Spain  in  the  7  years  waràFrench  get  it  backà   Jefferson  is  worried  so  he  sends  ambassadors  down  to  buy  New  Orleans  so  they  can  still  send   ships  outà  Louisiana  is  left  in  the  open  (Napoleon  lost  troops  in  Haiti  and  needs  money)  offers   the  whole  thing  for  15  million  (1803)  Doubles  the  size  of  America       -­‐Sends  Lewis  and  Clark  to  explore  landà  Claim  Oregon     Burr  Conspiracy     A. Vice  President  gets  into  a  duel  with  Hamilton  and  kills  him     B. Plans  to  take  Louisiana  and  run  it  separately     C. Arrested  and  disgraced     The  Berlin  and  Milan  Decrees     -­‐Practicing  economic  warfare  because  they  can’t  beat  each  other  militarily         Embargo  Act:  1807       -­‐America  is  delivering  to  both  England  and  France  so  they  get  mad  and  start  taking  our   ships  againà  Jefferson  declares  act  that  keeps  American  ships  in  port  stopping  all  American   exports  crushing  the  economy       Election  of  1808:  James  Madison     -­‐3  Democratic  Republicans  elected  from  Virginia  all  for  2  terms     President  -­‐James  Madison  (2  terms)     Vice-­‐  President  -­‐James  Monroe  (2  terms)     Battle  of  Tippecanoe     A. Tecumseh  and  Tenskwatawa-­‐  ß  and  British  troops  attack  American  settlers     B. William  Henry  Harrison-­‐  Defeats  them       War  Hawks/  Conquest  of  Canada       -­‐War  Hawks  in  congress  want  to  cease  Canada       The  war  of  1812   A. Causes-­‐     B. Opposition   C. Invasion  of  Canada-­‐     D. Battle  of  the  Great  Lakes-­‐  Commander  Perry—American  win   E. Burning  of  Washington,  D.C.-­‐  England  burns  down  white  house   F. Attack  on  Baltimore  –  Star  Spangled  Banner,  attack  on  Fort  McHenry     G.  The  Hartford  Convention-­‐  Federalists  meet   H. Treaty  of  Ghent  –  Americans  and  English  meet  to  stop  war     I. Battle  of  New  Orleans  –  2000  British  causalities  after  the  treaty  was  signed     Second Great Awakening : another religious widespread revival (1830’s) - Revivals/Camp Meetings : Sense of Destiny, Women participated more, Starts in New England and spreads through statesà 1000’s of people get together for prayer, singing, etc. - Circuit riders: Methodists had ministers on horseback going town to town preaching - Presbyterians: Saw a large increase in membership - Methodists/ Baptists: Had an increase in Black membership because they believed God didn’t see color - Burned-over district: Charles Grandson Finneyà wanted people to emulate Jesus Up state New York due to so many revivals - Mormon church Joseph Smith: (1830) Leader of Mormon community, his views veered from traditional Christian views so they were prosecuted. Tries to take Mormons from NY to Utah, gets thrown into jail and killed Brigham Young: After Smith is killed, he takes over getting people to Utah, Salt Lake City (which was Mexican territory) Allowed them to apply for statehood Literature/Romanticism - Transcendentalists: Belief that God can be in touch with the individual Emerson: Nature, absorb life Thoreau: Emerson’s follower, wrote “Walton”à Says you should follow your conscience not the government Hawthorne: Godfather of Literatureà Scarlet Letterà Puritan Guilt Dickinson: 1800 Poems published after death Poe: Father of Detective genre Melville: Moby Dick Whitman: Openly gay writer, moving sketches from an army hospital Simms: Leading poet in the South - Hoe Rotary Press: Made novels and newspapers less expensive and more popular Education - Literacy rates: U.S. had the highest literacy rates (1840) - Public Education: Started developing in (1830’s) due to rising demand. Richer families had better opportunities for education Reform Movements - Temperance: Movement to stop the production and consumption of Alcohol, longest lasting movement, taken over by women - Prison Reform: First time they thought of putting people in prison for long periods of time à rehabilitate: not to punish but to teach . No longer for debts - Dorothea Dix/treatment of the insane : Studied how people with mental disabilities or conditions were treatedà found they were being abusedà spurred Mass reform for institutions - Women’s Rights Movement Cult of Domesticity : Catherine Beecherà Belief that women belong in the home London Anti-slavery convention: (1842) Women are told they can’t see the meeting so they are forced to sit behind a curtain Seneca Falls conference : (1848) Convention where women’s rights beganà Declaration of Rightsà Declaration of Sentiments - Utopian Communities Shakers: All property was owned by the community and practiced celibacy Oneida: Manufactured goods and practiced free love (NY) Robert Owen: Part of Utopian communities , believed in manufacturing for communities Brook Farm: Writers tried to start a farm but failed Anti-slavery Movement: Americans wanted Black people out, so they bought Liberia to ship them there 1.) Idea that black slaves all came from Africa 2.) Idea that slave owners would just give up their slaves - Quakers: Were the first against slaver - William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator : Radical lead abolitionist in Boston, says slave owners should release slave holders now à believes Moral Suasion: its what’s right - “Gag Rule” in Congress : Putting slavery on the table and deal with it at another time - Split in Anti-Slavery Movement: Was tied to women rights, England and France Ban Slavery Grimke sisters: Sisters from South Carolina that become Quakers , were too radical and go to New England and give speeches Sojourner Truth: African American abolitionary and women’s rights activist . “Aint I a woman?” - Liberty Party: First Political Anti- Slavery group - Frederick Douglass: Escaped Slave, Public Speaker for liberty party - Underground Railroad : Harriet Tubman helped people escape through the Underground Railroad - Division in churches : Baptist and Methodist churches split due to regional differences - “Wage slavery”: George Fitzhughà Northern slaves were treated worse than Southern Slaves - Calhoun on slavery: Its become necessary and supports it


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