Continuation of Chapter 5 and Complete Chapter 6 and 7
Continuation of Chapter 5 and Complete Chapter 6 and 7 Hist 201
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Krahling on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 201 at Coastal Carolina University taught by John Navin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Coastal Carolina University.
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Wilderness Road - Connected Kentucky to Tennessee and was an old Indian path - Road travel east to west Erie Canal - built in 1825, connected bodies of water reducing freight costs (crops, ect.) connecting Buffalo New York to Albany (Hudson River) makes New York very valuable - animals stand on size and push-ups through Land grants for railroads - the government did not build railroads, they gave railroad companies grants for land - Americans reverse engineered British railroad Clipper Ships - Long distance trade ships to China and Japan, many were sent from Boston (Cape Anne) Telegraph - Was invented in 1832 by Samuel Morse, in 1840 it became revolutionary Cotton boom - Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, was great for the southern economy and it expands slavery Deere’s Steel Plow - John Deere, it cuts through thick ground. Made Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky the “bread basket” McCormack’s Mechanical Reaper - the mechanical reaper required two people, allow farmers to harvest more wheat. Speeds up western migration, output and production Slater’s sttton Yarn Mill - 1 Water Mill, Rhode Island Impact of 1807 Embargo Act - Crushes Economy but made American’s produce goods instead of buying from Europe Lowell factories - Boston Associates want textile mills so they tour and copy their ideasà Industrials espionage – - Spectacular achievement at first until other mills began to develop. To match production they began speed ups, increased hours, and pay cuts. - The women workers were the first to ever strikeà unfortunately they were replaceableà immigrants got their jobs but didn’t receive the benefits the women workers did Immigration - Irish accounted for 43% of the population - 1860: 1.6 million Irish, 1.2 million German - Irish came because of potato famine so many had no $, whereas Germans came for political reasons - Irish had Boss ward’s that helped get them jobs, food, housing in return they were told who to vote for giving Irish a powerful political standing Popular Culture - Cock fights, Alcohol consumption, Taverns, Theater, Minstrel shows, newspapers with stories Trade unions/Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) - National Trade Union created in 1884 - Commonwealth v. Hunt- supreme court deems unions legal and workers are allowed to strike Labor Union goals: 1.) Free public school education 2.) Abolish jail/ debt act 3.) 10-hour work day Labor Parties - (1854) Nativists form Know-Nothing Party (American Party)à anti immigrant organization, mainly Irish because their dominating them politically 1.) want to ban immigrants from political standings 2.) want to ban immigrants for 21 from nationalizing so that they can’t vote Rise of Professions - School training programs - Improvements in Medicine and Science - Formal study of fields Women: - Teaching and nurses CHAPTER 10 Post-war economic boom/speculation - Economy is taking off too much, borrowing too much - The National Bank has expired and state banks begin making money and giving loans with no regulations Re-charter of Bank of U.S., 1816 - 1816-1836 reestablished but doesn’t work as it should Protective Tariff of 1816 - Passed by Monroe, first time Protective Tariff has been passed Henry Clay’s “American System” 1.) Support National Bank 2.) Tariffs Protecting Manufacturing 3.) Support for Internal Improvements (Roads, canals, etc.) Era of Good Feelings/Election of 1820 - Era of good feelings was a time of Political harmony - James Monroe runs unopposed and becomes president making Democratic Republicans the main party Treaties with England: - Rush-Bagot Treaty- Agreemeth to demilitarize the Great Lakes - Convention of 1818- 49 Parallel establishes boundary between America and Canada, also decides to share Oregon Country Treaty with Spain: Adams-Onis Treaty - Indians attack American settlers and Andrew Jackson forces them down to Florida where he hangs them. Spain realizes that they cant control that much land because they are weak in power so they give Florida to America and move the boundary to west of the Red River (Firm Boundary Line) Panic of 1819 - There is a drop in money for cotton leading to a four-year recession - Many lost their jobs, homes, etc. Missouri Compromise - States determine whether there will be slavery or not - 1819 there are 22 states, 11 are free states, 11 are slave states - Balance of votes in Senate is important - Missouri has over 60,000 people and wants to become a state, they draft a constitution in favor of slavery, changing the voting dynamic in the Senate - Maine decides to break off and become a state as well in order to even out the Senate votes - Territories that aren’t states yet (36 degrees 30 minutes) must be free states when developed (southerners are mad because they aren’t going to be able to match that amount of free state Senate votes Monroe Doctrine 1.) Americans aren’t subject to European colonization 2.) Any attempt to colonize in Americas will be seen as a threat to the U.S. 3.) Promise not to bother existing colonies 4.) U.S. wont mettle in European affairs Election of 1824 - John Quincy Adams (DR) Northern Support - William Crofford (DR) Southern Support - Henry Clay (DR) Western Support - Andrew Jackson (DR) National Candidate because of the Spain Treaty, and other well know battles - Jackson receives the most votes but doesn’t receive over 50% so the vote goes to the House of Representatives “corrupt bargain” - Its mainly between Adams and Jackson, so Adams goes to Clay and offers him position of Secretary of State if he gets the support of his voters - Adams win and Jackson claims that was a “corrupt bargain” - 1828- Adams raises tariffs - Calhoun writes South Carolina Exposition and Protestà about the tariff of 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” Election of 1828 - Jackson v. Adams - Jackson creams Adams, becoming president Chapter 6 -‐Confederation government and States have war debt-‐ because goverment is weak they cant get the money they need -‐It’s the Critical Period-‐ Were America could have failed -‐Dissatisfied officers call a meeting in Newburg where they say were going to pull militia from eastern states leaving them vulnerable to get there 5 year pensionsà Newburg Conspiracy -‐Washington hears about this, calls them out, and it falls apart -‐Continental Congress creates the Northwest Ordinance of 1787: land above the Ohio River that is U.S. territory but not owned by a state 1.) Establishes the way a territory can become a state -‐Must have over 60,000 people -‐no fewer than 3 states out of it but no more that 5 2.) Then they can build an assembly but will still not have votes yet 3.) Draft a constitution making it become a state 4.) None of the states developed on that land can have slavery To sell the Land: -‐ A grid system was createdà36 blocksàtownshipà one block for schools -‐ Done so Federal government can sell it for revenue -‐ Wants to sell to investors for more money -‐ Buying wholesaleàselling retail price Effects of the war -‐Poor agriculture -‐No longer can sell on British controlled Islands -‐Paper currency is losing its value and there’s not enough to go around Shays Rebellion -‐Massachusetts: Farmers are losing there farms because they cant afford it so they go shut down courts with their guns. The Governor sends the militia to stop them, becomes a battle -‐ Chapter 7 United State in the 1790’s: A. Boundaries-‐ New country under the Constitution B. Population-‐ 4 million peopleà 750,000 were African C. Voting Rights-‐ Adult white males with a certain amount of property D. Exports/ Farming versus Industry-‐ majority of the country was devoted to agriculture E. New States-‐ Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee F. Invention of the Cotton Gin-‐ Eli Whitney makes cotton a booming crop, leads to westward migration G. Status of slavery-‐ Cotton Gin makes slaves necessary in the south The Constitution: A. Bill of Rights-‐ 10 amendments (Alexander Hamilton says this is a bad idea because it implies that the government is giving our “Natural Rights” st B. Impact on “Official” religions-th 1 amendment prohibits state religion C. Importance of the 10 amendment-‐ If the constitution says the government can do it, they can. If the states want to do something that’s not in the constitution, they can (Banks, Seat belts, Abortion) Washington’s Cabinet: A. John Adams-‐ Federalist, Vice president B. Thomas Jefferson-‐ Democratic Republican, Secretary of State (Deals with Ambassadors), from Virginia, plantation owner C. Alexander Hamilton-‐ Federalist, Secretary of Security (get America out of debt), born in the Caribbean, Implied Powers-‐ though its not in the constitution, if it benefits the people they should be able to do it D. Edmund Randolph-‐ Secretary General Jefferson’s view of America: -‐People make money off the land in the south (agrarian) and develop farming lands west of the Appellation Mountains making people self sufficient Hamilton’s view of America: -‐Wants to become a commercial and economic power like England with manufacturing and cities Hamilton’s proposals: A. Pay state debts from war-‐ Same as C. B. Place excise tax on liquor-‐ Tax on people who produce liquor C. Pay all outstanding government debts-‐ U.S. must have good credit so they must pay back their I.O.U.’s D. Create Bank of America-‐ Jefferson says no because its not in the constitution E. Establish protective tariffs-‐ Put tariffs on English products making American products be bought -‐People don’t like it because their having to pay more Conflicting Constitutional Interpretation: A. Loose interpretation based on doctrine of implied powers-‐ Federalists-‐ “Implied Powers” Democratic Republican “Little government as possible” Hamilton/ Adams Madison/ Jefferson B. Strict interpretation stressing 10 amendment-‐ th They make a deal, if they vote for the assumption plan they will locate the government somewhere in the south, Washington, DC Impact of the French Revolution on United States: -‐War between English and French during the Reign of Terror A. Washington’s proclamation of neutrality B. Support for England-‐ Americans are divided on who they want to help FederalistsàEngland C. Support for France (Democratic Republicans) / Jacobin clubs (Pro-‐Franceàcollect $)/ Citizen Genet (French governor sent to recruit men) Jays Treaty with England -‐English start stopping American ships, ceasing goods, and forcing crew to fight with England or go to jail. Washington sends John Jay to settle dispute Whiskey Rebellion -‐Corn Farmers in western Pennsylvania rebel in the taxes of Hamilton’s proposal Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain -‐Over a land dispute which leads Spain to disallow Americans to use their Mississippi Portsà Pinckney clarifies Florida boundary and gives back shipping to U.S. Washington’s Farewell Speech -‐1796-‐ warns people of regionalism (North vs. South) and Permanent Foreign Alliances Presidential elections A. President-‐ John Adams (North-‐ Federalist) B. Vice-‐ President-‐ Thomas Jefferson (South-‐ Democratic Republican) XYZ Affair -‐France is mad at us for not helping them so they start ceasing ships like England was so Adams sends a Representative to solve the problemàFrench say they need to pay bribes to list of people (listed xyz) à Adams creates navy and sends them to fight French in Quasi-‐war causing French to sign a treaty Alien and Sedition Acts-‐ -‐President can deport foreign people and you can NOT criticize the government or you get thrown into jail -‐ Violates Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Press Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions-‐ -‐Jefferson tries to get them to strike down the Alien and Sedition Acts but they don’t have the power to do so, that lies with the Supreme Court 1800 Presidential Election A. Republican Victory-‐ Want Adams out of office so they elect Jefferson and Burr but they tie B. Settled in House of Representatives-‐ Vote 36 times making Jefferson win Judiciary Act of 1801 A. Midnight Judges-‐ Adams appoints judges before leaving office B. Marbury vs. Madison-‐ Marbury was supposed to become a judge but Jefferson stopped the Judiciary Act, supreme court determines the constitutionality of the law C. Supreme Court declares Judiciary Act unconstitutional Chief Justice John Marshall/ Federal vs. State Power -‐Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, wants to strengthen the government not the states North African Pirates-‐ -‐Tripolià Europeans pay pirates not to attack but Jefferson sends Navy over to stop them from attacking our shipsà we agree to pay a small fee if they let us go The Louisiana Purchase-‐ -‐French had Louisianaà lost it to Spain in the 7 years waràFrench get it backà Jefferson is worried so he sends ambassadors down to buy New Orleans so they can still send ships outà Louisiana is left in the open (Napoleon lost troops in Haiti and needs money) offers the whole thing for 15 million (1803) Doubles the size of America -‐Sends Lewis and Clark to explore landà Claim Oregon Burr Conspiracy A. Vice President gets into a duel with Hamilton and kills him B. Plans to take Louisiana and run it separately C. Arrested and disgraced The Berlin and Milan Decrees -‐Practicing economic warfare because they can’t beat each other militarily Embargo Act: 1807 -‐America is delivering to both England and France so they get mad and start taking our ships againà Jefferson declares act that keeps American ships in port stopping all American exports crushing the economy Election of 1808: James Madison -‐3 Democratic Republicans elected from Virginia all for 2 terms President -‐James Madison (2 terms) Vice-‐ President -‐James Monroe (2 terms) Battle of Tippecanoe A. Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa-‐ ß and British troops attack American settlers B. William Henry Harrison-‐ Defeats them War Hawks/ Conquest of Canada -‐War Hawks in congress want to cease Canada The war of 1812 A. Causes-‐ B. Opposition C. Invasion of Canada-‐ D. Battle of the Great Lakes-‐ Commander Perry—American win E. Burning of Washington, D.C.-‐ England burns down white house F. Attack on Baltimore – Star Spangled Banner, attack on Fort McHenry G. The Hartford Convention-‐ Federalists meet H. Treaty of Ghent – Americans and English meet to stop war I. Battle of New Orleans – 2000 British causalities after the treaty was signed Second Great Awakening : another religious widespread revival (1830’s) - Revivals/Camp Meetings : Sense of Destiny, Women participated more, Starts in New England and spreads through statesà 1000’s of people get together for prayer, singing, etc. - Circuit riders: Methodists had ministers on horseback going town to town preaching - Presbyterians: Saw a large increase in membership - Methodists/ Baptists: Had an increase in Black membership because they believed God didn’t see color - Burned-over district: Charles Grandson Finneyà wanted people to emulate Jesus Up state New York due to so many revivals - Mormon church Joseph Smith: (1830) Leader of Mormon community, his views veered from traditional Christian views so they were prosecuted. Tries to take Mormons from NY to Utah, gets thrown into jail and killed Brigham Young: After Smith is killed, he takes over getting people to Utah, Salt Lake City (which was Mexican territory) Allowed them to apply for statehood Literature/Romanticism - Transcendentalists: Belief that God can be in touch with the individual Emerson: Nature, absorb life Thoreau: Emerson’s follower, wrote “Walton”à Says you should follow your conscience not the government Hawthorne: Godfather of Literatureà Scarlet Letterà Puritan Guilt Dickinson: 1800 Poems published after death Poe: Father of Detective genre Melville: Moby Dick Whitman: Openly gay writer, moving sketches from an army hospital Simms: Leading poet in the South - Hoe Rotary Press: Made novels and newspapers less expensive and more popular Education - Literacy rates: U.S. had the highest literacy rates (1840) - Public Education: Started developing in (1830’s) due to rising demand. Richer families had better opportunities for education Reform Movements - Temperance: Movement to stop the production and consumption of Alcohol, longest lasting movement, taken over by women - Prison Reform: First time they thought of putting people in prison for long periods of time à rehabilitate: not to punish but to teach . No longer for debts - Dorothea Dix/treatment of the insane : Studied how people with mental disabilities or conditions were treatedà found they were being abusedà spurred Mass reform for institutions - Women’s Rights Movement Cult of Domesticity : Catherine Beecherà Belief that women belong in the home London Anti-slavery convention: (1842) Women are told they can’t see the meeting so they are forced to sit behind a curtain Seneca Falls conference : (1848) Convention where women’s rights beganà Declaration of Rightsà Declaration of Sentiments - Utopian Communities Shakers: All property was owned by the community and practiced celibacy Oneida: Manufactured goods and practiced free love (NY) Robert Owen: Part of Utopian communities , believed in manufacturing for communities Brook Farm: Writers tried to start a farm but failed Anti-slavery Movement: Americans wanted Black people out, so they bought Liberia to ship them there 1.) Idea that black slaves all came from Africa 2.) Idea that slave owners would just give up their slaves - Quakers: Were the first against slaver - William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator : Radical lead abolitionist in Boston, says slave owners should release slave holders now à believes Moral Suasion: its what’s right - “Gag Rule” in Congress : Putting slavery on the table and deal with it at another time - Split in Anti-Slavery Movement: Was tied to women rights, England and France Ban Slavery Grimke sisters: Sisters from South Carolina that become Quakers , were too radical and go to New England and give speeches Sojourner Truth: African American abolitionary and women’s rights activist . “Aint I a woman?” - Liberty Party: First Political Anti- Slavery group - Frederick Douglass: Escaped Slave, Public Speaker for liberty party - Underground Railroad : Harriet Tubman helped people escape through the Underground Railroad - Division in churches : Baptist and Methodist churches split due to regional differences - “Wage slavery”: George Fitzhughà Northern slaves were treated worse than Southern Slaves - Calhoun on slavery: Its become necessary and supports it