History 201 Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14
History 201 Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14 Hist 201
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Krahling on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 201 at Coastal Carolina University taught by John Navin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Wilderness Road - Connected Kentucky to Tennessee and was an old Indian path - Road travel east to west Erie Canal - built in 1825, connected bodies of water reducing freight costs (crops, ect.) connecting Buffalo New York to Albany (Hudson River) makes New York very valuable - animals stand on size and push-ups through Land grants for railroads - the government did not build railroads, they gave railroad companies grants for land - Americans reverse engineered British railroad Clipper Ships - Long distance trade ships to China and Japan, many were sent from Boston (Cape Anne) Telegraph - Was invented in 1832 by Samuel Morse, in 1840 it became revolutionary Cotton boom - Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, was great for the southern economy and it expands slavery Deere’s Steel Plow - John Deere, it cuts through thick ground. Made Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky the “bread basket” McCormack’s Mechanical Reaper - the mechanical reaper required two people, allow farmers to harvest more wheat. Speeds up western migration, output and production Slater’s sttton Yarn Mill - 1 Water Mill, Rhode Island Impact of 1807 Embargo Act - Crushes Economy but made American’s produce goods instead of buying from Europe Lowell factories - Boston Associates want textile mills so they tour and copy their ideasà Industrials espionage – - Spectacular achievement at first until other mills began to develop. To match production they began speed ups, increased hours, and pay cuts. - The women workers were the first to ever strikeà unfortunately they were replaceableà immigrants got their jobs but didn’t receive the benefits the women workers did Immigration - Irish accounted for 43% of the population - 1860: 1.6 million Irish, 1.2 million German - Irish came because of potato famine so many had no $, whereas Germans came for political reasons - Irish had Boss ward’s that helped get them jobs, food, housing in return they were told who to vote for giving Irish a powerful political standing Popular Culture - Cock fights, Alcohol consumption, Taverns, Theater, Minstrel shows, newspapers with stories Trade unions/Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) - National Trade Union created in 1884 - Commonwealth v. Hunt- supreme court deems unions legal and workers are allowed to strike Labor Union goals: 1.) Free public school education 2.) Abolish jail/ debt act 3.) 10-hour work day Labor Parties - (1854) Nativists form Know-Nothing Party (American Party)à anti immigrant organization, mainly Irish because their dominating them politically 1.) want to ban immigrants from political standings 2.) want to ban immigrants for 21 from nationalizing so that they can’t vote Rise of Professions - School training programs - Improvements in Medicine and Science - Formal study of fields Women: - Teaching and nurses Chapter 10 CHAPTER 10 Post-‐war economic boom/speculation - Economy is taking off too much, borrowing too much - The National Bank has expired and state banks begin making money and giving loans with no regulations Re-‐charter of Bank of U.S., 1816 - 1816-1836 reestablished but doesn’t work as it should Protective Tariff of 1816 - Passed by Monroe, first time Protective Tariff has been passed Henry Clay’s “American System” 1.) Support National Bank 2.) Tariffs Protecting Manufacturing 3.) Support for Internal Improvements (Roads, canals, etc.) Era of Good Feelings/Election of 1820 - Era of good feelings was a time of Political harmony - James Monroe runs unopposed and becomes president making Democratic Republicans the main party Treaties with England: - Rush-Bagot Treaty- Agreement to demilitarize the Great Lakes - Convention of 1818- 49 Parallel establishes boundary between America and Canada, also decides to share Oregon Country Treaty with Spain: Adams-‐Onis Treaty - Indians attack American settlers and Andrew Jackson forces them down to Florida where he hangs them. Spain realizes that they cant control that much land because they are weak in power so they give Florida to America and move the boundary to west of the Red River (Firm Boundary Line) Panic of 1819 - There is a drop in money for cotton leading to a four-year recession - Many lost their jobs, homes, etc. Missouri Compromise - States determine whether there will be slavery or not - 1819 there are 22 states, 11 are free states, 11 are slave states - Balance of votes in Senate is important - Missouri has over 60,000 people and wants to become a state, they draft a constitution in favor of slavery, changing the voting dynamic in the Senate - Maine decides to break off and become a state as well in order to even out the Senate votes - Territories that aren’t states yet (36 degrees 30 minutes) must be free states when developed (southerners are mad because they aren’t going to be able to match that amount of free state Senate votes Monroe Doctrine 1.) Americans aren’t subject to European colonization 2.) Any attempt to colonize in Americas will be seen as a threat to the U.S. 3.) Promise not to bother existing colonies 4.) U.S. wont mettle in European affairs Election of 1824 - John Quincy Adams (DR) Northern Support - William Crofford (DR) Southern Support - Henry Clay (DR) Western Support - Andrew Jackson (DR) National Candidate because of the Spain Treaty, and other well know battles - Jackson receives the most votes but doesn’t receive over 50% so the vote goes to the House of Representatives “corrupt bargain” - Its mainly between Adams and Jackson, so Adams goes to Clay and offers him position of Secretary of State if he gets the support of his voters - Adams win and Jackson claims that was a “corrupt bargain” - 1828- Adams raises tariffs - Calhoun writes South Carolina Exposition and Protestà about the tariff of 1828 “Tariff of Abominations” Election of 1828 - Jackson v. Adams - Jackson creams Adams, becoming president Spoils system: Appoint political supporters to political office à Jackson practices this and believe in a rotation of office and the people should serve Eaton affair: - Jacksons wife had a divorce prior to them getting married, big scandal so people ridiculed her - Eaton (Secretary of war) has an affair with a married woman whose husband commited suicide à then marries her - No one likes her and Jackson tells people to talk to her. Calhoun’s (Vice President) wife says no causing tensions 1828 Tariff of Abominations : 1828: Tariff of Abominations à Calhoun writes South Carolina Exposition and Protest 1832: Tariff increases again à SC says no more and threatens anyone who tries to collect the tariff to be arrested - Jackson passes the Force Bill saying he can do whatever is necessary to collect the tariff - Calhoun resigns so he can fight bill in congress, as the governor calls up a militia - Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser, propose s that tariffs will be reduced over a 10 year period back down to the 1816 levelà SC agrees 1830 Indian Removal Act: Jackson has the ability to trade federal land in the West for Indian land in the East - The 5 Civilized tribes: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminoles , Cherokee, and Creek - Black Hawk War: Sauk and Fox Indians fought for their land in Wisconsin - Seminole War: Seminoles in Florida are pushed out but many hide in the Mountains - Georgia “gold rush”: Cherokee were the most “Americanized” Indians, when they w ere told they had to move they took Georgia to court and won. Jackson used troops to push them out anyway because there had been gold found in that area, making it valuable - Trail of Tears: Indians forced to travel to Oklahoma, many died The Bank War - Nicholas Biddle: President of the Bank and Political enemy to Jackson - Effort to re-‐charter: Biddle tries to re-‐charter the bank four years early, during election time, believing that Jackson will be forced to re-‐charter or he’ll lose votes, jeopardizing his elec tion. He vetoes it anyway and slams it verbally - Election of 1832: - Andrew Jackson - Democrat Anti-‐Masonic was formed to stop Masons (Many of the Founding Fathers - Henry Clay - National Republican Introduced:Announced Platform - William Wirt - Anti-‐Masonic 1.) Nominating Conventions Jackson wins and Van Buren becomes Vice President - Distribution Act/Pet banks : Jackson decides to kill the bank by taking federal funds and putting it into State Banks (Pet Banks) instead of the National Banks Government still has too much money so Jackson makes the Distribution Actà Surplus money goes to the states - Specie Circular: Government would only take hard currency for land, no paper money (Gold, Silver) Election of 1836 Van Buren Democratic (was Jacksons VP) Whigs-‐ New partyà Panic of Harrison Whig accumulation of people from White Whig other parties that oppose 1837 Webster Whig Jackson and his policies Mangum Whig - Depression, drop in Cotton prices in England, Jackson Contributed Election of 1840 William Harrison (Tippecanoe Indian Fighter) Whig Van Buren Democrat - Harrison wins but dies on pneumonia making John Tyler, is VP, President Jacksonian America - Voter restrictions became looser increasing participation - Party conventions became popular Southern Culture - Herriot Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Toms Cabin à Very influential - Regional differences: Weather, Industrialization - Industrialization: North was devoted to Industrialization, South to agriculture - Southern exports: Tobacco, Indigo, Rice, Cotton - Cotton production/markets : A majority of cotton is sent to England - Migration/new states : Many people moved west when the cotton gin was invented for the richer soil and better opportunities - Slave ownership: only 25% of White southerners owned slaves - Race and class: Whites have a sense of unity because Black people are the lowest social clas - Churches and slavery: Ministers support of slavery depended on what region they were in à Southerners supported slavery or they’d be out of a job - Population: 25% of White Southerners owned slaves, 2.5% slave owners own 50% of slaves (slave elite) - Free blacks: - Distribution: Cotton was sent majorly to England; Foreign Slave Trade is no longer legal people turn to the domestic slave trade, te aring apart families - Gang systemà all slaves do the same thing for the same amount of time - Task systemà Individual slaves work on one task - Women and slavery : Valuable because they can reproduce and their offspring will be slaves if the mother is, often subject to abuse - Family life: Had marriages - Religion: Christianity and African Traditions - Slave rebellions: Stono, SC 1739: 23 whites killed, SC passes harsh laws against Blacks Haiti, 1792: Slaves take control of the island and kill all of the whites Denmark Vesey, SC 1822: He won his freedom from the lotteryà he attempts to take over Charleston and failed Nat Turner, 1831: He was a religious man, over 50 whites die. Newspapers depict slaves awfully Second Great Awakening : another religious widespread revival (1830’s) - Revivals/Camp Meetings : Sense of Destiny, Women participated more, Starts in New England and spreads through statesà 1000’s of people get together for prayer, singing, etc. - Circuit riders: Methodists had ministers on horseback going town to town preaching - Presbyterians: Saw a large increase in membership - Methodists/ Baptists: Had an increase in Black membership because they believed God didn’t see color - Burned-over district: Charles Grandson Finneyà wanted people to emulate Jesus Up state New York due to so many revivals - Mormon church Joseph Smith: (1830) Leader of Mormon community, his views veered from traditional Christian views so they were prosecuted. Tries to take Mormons from NY to Utah, gets thrown into jail and killed Brigham Young: After Smith is killed, he takes over getting people to Utah, Salt Lake City (which was Mexican territory) Allowed them to apply for statehood Literature/Romanticism - Transcendentalists: Belief that God can be in touch with the individual Emerson: Nature, absorb life Thoreau: Emerson’s follower, wrote “Walton”à Says you should follow your conscience not the government Hawthorne: Godfather of Literatureà Scarlet Letterà Puritan Guilt Dickinson: 1800 Poems published after death Poe: Father of Detective genre Melville: Moby Dick Whitman: Openly gay writer, moving sketches from an army hospital Simms: Leading poet in the South - Hoe Rotary Press: Made novels and newspapers less expensive and more popular Education - Literacy rates: U.S. had the highest literacy rates (1840) - Public Education: Started developing in (1830’s) due to rising demand. Richer families had better opportunities for education Reform Movements - Temperance: Movement to stop the production and consumption of Alcohol, longest lasting movement, taken over by women - Prison Reform: First time they thought of putting people in prison for long periods of time à rehabilitate: not to punish but to teach . No longer for debts - Dorothea Dix/treatment of the insane : Studied how people with mental disabilities or conditions were treatedà found they were being abusedà spurred Mass reform for institutions - Women’s Rights Movement Cult of Domesticity : Catherine Beecherà Belief that women belong in the home London Anti-slavery convention: (1842) Women are told they can’t see the meeting so they are forced to sit behind a curtain Seneca Falls conference : (1848) Convention where women’s rights beganà Declaration of Rightsà Declaration of Sentiments - Utopian Communities Shakers: All property was owned by the community and practiced celibacy Oneida: Manufactured goods and practiced free love (NY) Robert Owen: Part of Utopian communities , believed in manufacturing for communities Brook Farm: Writers tried to start a farm but failed Anti-slavery Movement: Americans wanted Black people out, so they bought Liberia to ship them there 1.) Idea that black slaves all came from Africa 2.) Idea that slave owners would just give up their slaves - Quakers: Were the first against slaver - William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator : Radical lead abolitionist in Boston, says slave owners should release slave holders now à believes Moral Suasion: its what’s right - “Gag Rule” in Congress : Putting slavery on the table and deal with it at another time - Split in Anti-Slavery Movement: Was tied to women rights, England and France Ban Slavery Grimke sisters: Sisters from South Carolina that become Quakers , were too radical and go to New England and give speeches Sojourner Truth: African American abolitionary and women’s rights activist . “Aint I a woman?” - Liberty Party: First Political Anti- Slavery group - Frederick Douglass: Escaped Slave, Public Speaker for liberty party - Underground Railroad : Harriet Tubman helped people escape through the Underground Railroad - Division in churches : Baptist and Methodist churches split due to regional differences - “Wage slavery”: George Fitzhughà Northern slaves were treated worse than Southern Slaves - Calhoun on slavery: Its become necessary and supports it CHAPTER 14 Election of 1840 -‐ Harrison & Tyler (Whigs) : Harrison wins but dies of pneumonia making Tyler (VP) President. He ran as a Whig but isn’t really a Whig seeing as he Veto’s the Bank Bill. His cabinet resigns except for Daniel Webster Manifest Destiny: Belief that people were meant to expand coast to coast spreading the word of God. Formed as an excuse to expand Mexican independence : Mexicans separated from Spanish rule American settlement in Mexico -‐ Coahuila y Tejas: Lightly settled on territory. Moses goes to ask Mexican Government if he can settle on their land (cotton gin movement) Rules: 1.) Obey Mexican Law and become Mexican Citizens 2.) Practice Roman Catholic religion 3.) No Slaves
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