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History 201 Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14

by: Lauren Krahling

History 201 Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, and 14 Hist 201

Marketplace > Coastal Carolina University > History > Hist 201 > History 201 Chapters 9 10 11 12 and 14
Lauren Krahling
GPA 3.9

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These are notes for History 201 Chapters 9, 10, 11, 12 and 14.
U.S. History
John Navin
Class Notes
U.S. Government, history, u.s.
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Krahling on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 201 at Coastal Carolina University taught by John Navin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Wilderness Road - Connected Kentucky to Tennessee and was an old Indian path - Road travel east to west Erie Canal - built in 1825, connected bodies of water reducing freight costs (crops, ect.) connecting Buffalo New York to Albany (Hudson River) makes New York very valuable - animals stand on size and push-ups through Land grants for railroads - the government did not build railroads, they gave railroad companies grants for land - Americans reverse engineered British railroad Clipper Ships - Long distance trade ships to China and Japan, many were sent from Boston (Cape Anne) Telegraph - Was invented in 1832 by Samuel Morse, in 1840 it became revolutionary Cotton boom - Eli Whitney created the cotton gin, was great for the southern economy and it expands slavery Deere’s Steel Plow - John Deere, it cuts through thick ground. Made Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky the “bread basket” McCormack’s Mechanical Reaper - the mechanical reaper required two people, allow farmers to harvest more wheat. Speeds up western migration, output and production Slater’s sttton Yarn Mill - 1 Water Mill, Rhode Island Impact of 1807 Embargo Act - Crushes Economy but made American’s produce goods instead of buying from Europe Lowell factories - Boston Associates want textile mills so they tour and copy their ideasà Industrials espionage – - Spectacular achievement at first until other mills began to develop. To match production they began speed ups, increased hours, and pay cuts. - The women workers were the first to ever strikeà unfortunately they were replaceableà immigrants got their jobs but didn’t receive the benefits the women workers did Immigration - Irish accounted for 43% of the population - 1860: 1.6 million Irish, 1.2 million German - Irish came because of potato famine so many had no $, whereas Germans came for political reasons - Irish had Boss ward’s that helped get them jobs, food, housing in return they were told who to vote for giving Irish a powerful political standing Popular Culture - Cock fights, Alcohol consumption, Taverns, Theater, Minstrel shows, newspapers with stories Trade unions/Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842) - National Trade Union created in 1884 - Commonwealth v. Hunt- supreme court deems unions legal and workers are allowed to strike Labor Union goals: 1.) Free public school education 2.) Abolish jail/ debt act 3.) 10-hour work day Labor Parties - (1854) Nativists form Know-Nothing Party (American Party)à anti immigrant organization, mainly Irish because their dominating them politically 1.) want to ban immigrants from political standings 2.) want to ban immigrants for 21 from nationalizing so that they can’t vote Rise of Professions - School training programs - Improvements in Medicine and Science - Formal study of fields Women: - Teaching and nurses Chapter  10     CHAPTER  10     Post-­‐war  economic  boom/speculation   - Economy is taking off too much, borrowing too much - The National Bank has expired and state banks begin making money and giving loans with no regulations   Re-­‐charter  of  Bank  of  U.S.,  1816   - 1816-1836 reestablished but doesn’t work as it should     Protective  Tariff  of  1816   - Passed by Monroe, first time Protective Tariff has been passed   Henry  Clay’s  “American  System”   1.) Support National Bank 2.) Tariffs Protecting Manufacturing 3.) Support for Internal Improvements (Roads, canals, etc.)   Era  of  Good  Feelings/Election  of  1820   - Era of good feelings was a time of Political harmony - James Monroe runs unopposed and becomes president making Democratic Republicans the main party   Treaties  with  England:     - Rush-Bagot Treaty- Agreement to demilitarize the Great Lakes - Convention of 1818- 49 Parallel establishes boundary between America and Canada, also decides to share Oregon Country   Treaty  with  Spain:  Adams-­‐Onis  Treaty   - Indians attack American settlers and Andrew Jackson forces them down to Florida where he hangs them. Spain realizes that they cant control that much land because they are weak in power so they give Florida to America and move the boundary to west of the Red River (Firm Boundary Line)   Panic  of  1819   - There is a drop in money for cotton leading to a four-year recession - Many lost their jobs, homes, etc.   Missouri  Compromise   - States determine whether there will be slavery or not - 1819 there are 22 states, 11 are free states, 11 are slave states - Balance of votes in Senate is important - Missouri has over 60,000 people and wants to become a state, they draft a constitution in favor of slavery, changing the voting dynamic in the Senate - Maine decides to break off and become a state as well in order to even out the Senate votes - Territories that aren’t states yet (36 degrees 30 minutes) must be free states when developed (southerners are mad because they aren’t going to be able to match that amount of free state Senate votes   Monroe  Doctrine   1.) Americans aren’t subject to European colonization 2.) Any attempt to colonize in Americas will be seen as a threat to the U.S. 3.) Promise not to bother existing colonies 4.) U.S. wont mettle in European affairs   Election  of  1824   - John Quincy Adams (DR) Northern Support - William Crofford (DR) Southern Support - Henry Clay (DR) Western Support - Andrew Jackson (DR) National Candidate because of the Spain Treaty, and other well know battles - Jackson receives the most votes but doesn’t receive over 50% so the vote goes to the House of Representatives   “corrupt  bargain”   - Its mainly between Adams and Jackson, so Adams goes to Clay and offers him position of Secretary of State if he gets the support of his voters - Adams win and Jackson claims that was a “corrupt bargain” - 1828- Adams raises tariffs - Calhoun writes South Carolina Exposition and Protestà about the tariff of 1828 “Tariff of Abominations”   Election  of  1828   - Jackson v. Adams - Jackson creams Adams, becoming president     Spoils  system:   Appoint  political  supporters  to  political  office  à  Jackson  practices  this  and  believe  in  a  rotation  of  office  and  the  people   should  serve   Eaton  affair:   - Jacksons  wife  had  a  divorce  prior  to  them  getting  married,  big  scandal  so  people  ridiculed  her     - Eaton  (Secretary  of  war)  has  an  affair  with  a  married  woman  whose  husband  commited  suicide à  then   marries  her     - No  one  likes  her  and  Jackson  tells  people  to  talk   to  her.  Calhoun’s  (Vice  President)  wife  says  no  causing   tensions     1828  Tariff  of  Abominations :   1828:  Tariff  of  Abominations à  Calhoun  writes  South  Carolina  Exposition  and  Protest     1832:  Tariff  increases  again à  SC  says  no  more  and  threatens  anyone  who  tries   to  collect  the  tariff  to  be  arrested   - Jackson  passes  the  Force  Bill  saying  he  can  do  whatever  is  necessary  to  collect  the  tariff   - Calhoun  resigns  so  he  can  fight  bill  in  congress,  as  the  governor  calls  up  a  militia     - Henry  Clay,  the  Great  Compromiser,  propose s  that  tariffs  will  be  reduced  over  a  10  year  period  back  down   to  the  1816  levelà  SC  agrees   1830  Indian  Removal  Act:   Jackson  has  the  ability  to  trade  federal  land  in  the  West  for  Indian  land  in  the  East   - The  5  Civilized  tribes:  Chickasaw,  Choctaw,  Seminoles ,  Cherokee,  and  Creek   - Black  Hawk  War:  Sauk  and  Fox  Indians  fought  for  their  land  in  Wisconsin     - Seminole  War:  Seminoles  in  Florida  are  pushed  out  but  many  hide  in  the  Mountains     - Georgia  “gold  rush”:  Cherokee  were  the  most  “Americanized”  Indians,  when  they  w ere  told  they  had  to  move   they  took  Georgia  to  court  and  won.  Jackson  used  troops  to  push  them  out  anyway  because  there  had  been  gold   found  in  that  area,  making  it  valuable   - Trail  of  Tears:  Indians  forced  to  travel  to  Oklahoma,  many  died   The  Bank  War   - Nicholas  Biddle:  President  of  the  Bank  and  Political  enemy  to  Jackson   - Effort  to  re-­‐charter:  Biddle  tries  to  re-­‐charter  the  bank  four  years  early,  during  election  time,  believing  that   Jackson  will  be  forced  to  re-­‐charter  or  he’ll  lose  votes,  jeopardizing  his  elec tion.  He  vetoes  it  anyway  and  slams  it   verbally   - Election  of  1832:     - Andrew  Jackson   - Democrat   Anti-­‐Masonic  was  formed  to  stop   Masons  (Many  of  the  Founding  Fathers   - Henry  Clay   - National  Republican     Introduced:Announced  Platform     - William  Wirt   - Anti-­‐Masonic   1.) Nominating  Conventions       Jackson  wins  and  Van  Buren  becomes  Vice  President     - Distribution  Act/Pet  banks :  Jackson  decides  to  kill  the  bank  by  taking  federal  funds  and  putting  it  into  State   Banks  (Pet  Banks)  instead  of  the  National  Banks         Government  still  has  too  much  money  so  Jackson  makes  the   Distribution  Actà  Surplus  money  goes  to   the  states   - Specie  Circular:  Government  would  only  take  hard  currency  for  land,  no  paper  money  (Gold,  Silver)   Election  of  1836   Van  Buren     Democratic  (was  Jacksons  VP)   Whigs-­‐  New  partyà     Panic  of   Harrison     Whig   accumulation  of  people  from   White     Whig   other  parties  that  oppose   1837   Webster     Whig   Jackson  and  his  policies     Mangum     Whig   - Depression,  drop  in  Cotton  prices  in  England,  Jackson  Contributed     Election  of  1840   William  Harrison  (Tippecanoe  Indian  Fighter)     Whig     Van  Buren     Democrat     - Harrison  wins  but  dies  on  pneumonia  making   John  Tyler,  is  VP,  President     Jacksonian  America   - Voter  restrictions  became  looser  increasing  participation     - Party  conventions  became  popular   Southern  Culture   - Herriot  Beecher  Stowe  wrote  Uncle  Toms  Cabin à  Very  influential     - Regional  differences:  Weather,  Industrialization     - Industrialization:  North  was  devoted  to  Industrialization,  South  to  agriculture     - Southern  exports:  Tobacco,  Indigo,  Rice,  Cotton   - Cotton  production/markets :  A  majority  of  cotton  is  sent  to  England     - Migration/new  states :  Many  people  moved  west  when  the  cotton  gin  was  invented  for  the  richer  soil  and  better   opportunities     - Slave  ownership:  only  25%  of  White  southerners  owned  slaves   - Race  and  class:  Whites  have  a  sense  of  unity  because  Black  people  are  the  lowest  social  clas   - Churches  and  slavery:  Ministers  support  of  slavery  depended  on  what  region  they  were  in à  Southerners   supported  slavery  or  they’d  be  out  of  a  job   - Population:  25%  of  White  Southerners  owned  slaves,  2.5%  slave  owners  own  50%  of  slaves  (slave  elite)   - Free  blacks:   - Distribution:  Cotton  was  sent  majorly  to  England;  Foreign  Slave  Trade  is  no  longer  legal  people  turn  to  the   domestic  slave  trade,  te aring  apart  families         - Gang  systemà  all  slaves  do  the  same  thing  for  the  same  amount  of  time     - Task  systemà  Individual  slaves  work  on  one  task   - Women  and  slavery :  Valuable  because  they  can  reproduce  and  their  offspring  will  be  slaves  if  the  mother  is,   often  subject  to  abuse   - Family  life:  Had  marriages     - Religion:  Christianity  and  African  Traditions     - Slave  rebellions:   Stono,  SC  1739:  23  whites  killed,  SC  passes  harsh  laws  against  Blacks   Haiti,  1792:  Slaves  take  control  of  the  island  and  kill  all  of  the  whites   Denmark  Vesey,  SC  1822:  He  won  his  freedom  from  the  lotteryà  he  attempts  to  take  over  Charleston  and   failed   Nat  Turner,  1831:  He  was  a  religious  man,  over  50  whites  die.  Newspapers  depict  slaves  awfully     Second Great Awakening : another religious widespread revival (1830’s) - Revivals/Camp Meetings : Sense of Destiny, Women participated more, Starts in New England and spreads through statesà 1000’s of people get together for prayer, singing, etc. - Circuit riders: Methodists had ministers on horseback going town to town preaching - Presbyterians: Saw a large increase in membership - Methodists/ Baptists: Had an increase in Black membership because they believed God didn’t see color - Burned-over district: Charles Grandson Finneyà wanted people to emulate Jesus Up state New York due to so many revivals - Mormon church Joseph Smith: (1830) Leader of Mormon community, his views veered from traditional Christian views so they were prosecuted. Tries to take Mormons from NY to Utah, gets thrown into jail and killed Brigham Young: After Smith is killed, he takes over getting people to Utah, Salt Lake City (which was Mexican territory) Allowed them to apply for statehood Literature/Romanticism - Transcendentalists: Belief that God can be in touch with the individual Emerson: Nature, absorb life Thoreau: Emerson’s follower, wrote “Walton”à Says you should follow your conscience not the government Hawthorne: Godfather of Literatureà Scarlet Letterà Puritan Guilt Dickinson: 1800 Poems published after death Poe: Father of Detective genre Melville: Moby Dick Whitman: Openly gay writer, moving sketches from an army hospital Simms: Leading poet in the South - Hoe Rotary Press: Made novels and newspapers less expensive and more popular Education - Literacy rates: U.S. had the highest literacy rates (1840) - Public Education: Started developing in (1830’s) due to rising demand. Richer families had better opportunities for education Reform Movements - Temperance: Movement to stop the production and consumption of Alcohol, longest lasting movement, taken over by women - Prison Reform: First time they thought of putting people in prison for long periods of time à rehabilitate: not to punish but to teach . No longer for debts - Dorothea Dix/treatment of the insane : Studied how people with mental disabilities or conditions were treatedà found they were being abusedà spurred Mass reform for institutions - Women’s Rights Movement Cult of Domesticity : Catherine Beecherà Belief that women belong in the home London Anti-slavery convention: (1842) Women are told they can’t see the meeting so they are forced to sit behind a curtain Seneca Falls conference : (1848) Convention where women’s rights beganà Declaration of Rightsà Declaration of Sentiments - Utopian Communities Shakers: All property was owned by the community and practiced celibacy Oneida: Manufactured goods and practiced free love (NY) Robert Owen: Part of Utopian communities , believed in manufacturing for communities Brook Farm: Writers tried to start a farm but failed Anti-slavery Movement: Americans wanted Black people out, so they bought Liberia to ship them there 1.) Idea that black slaves all came from Africa 2.) Idea that slave owners would just give up their slaves - Quakers: Were the first against slaver - William Lloyd Garrison/The Liberator : Radical lead abolitionist in Boston, says slave owners should release slave holders now à believes Moral Suasion: its what’s right - “Gag Rule” in Congress : Putting slavery on the table and deal with it at another time - Split in Anti-Slavery Movement: Was tied to women rights, England and France Ban Slavery Grimke sisters: Sisters from South Carolina that become Quakers , were too radical and go to New England and give speeches Sojourner Truth: African American abolitionary and women’s rights activist . “Aint I a woman?” - Liberty Party: First Political Anti- Slavery group - Frederick Douglass: Escaped Slave, Public Speaker for liberty party - Underground Railroad : Harriet Tubman helped people escape through the Underground Railroad - Division in churches : Baptist and Methodist churches split due to regional differences - “Wage slavery”: George Fitzhughà Northern slaves were treated worse than Southern Slaves - Calhoun on slavery: Its become necessary and supports it CHAPTER 14 Election of 1840 -­‐ Harrison & Tyler (Whigs) : Harrison wins but dies of pneumonia making Tyler (VP) President. He ran as a Whig but isn’t really a Whig seeing as he Veto’s the Bank Bill. His cabinet resigns except for Daniel Webster Manifest Destiny: Belief that people were meant to expand coast to coast spreading the word of God. Formed as an excuse to expand Mexican independence : Mexicans separated from Spanish rule American settlement in Mexico -­‐ Coahuila y Tejas: Lightly settled on territory. Moses goes to ask Mexican Government if he can settle on their land (cotton gin movement) Rules: 1.) Obey Mexican Law and become Mexican Citizens 2.) Practice Roman Catholic religion 3.) No Slaves


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