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Week 6 Notes

by: Kelli Notetaker

Week 6 Notes XANTHRO 2AC

Kelli Notetaker

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No notes for the 28th because that was the midterm
Introduction to Archaeology
Kent G Lightfoot
Class Notes
intro, to, archaelogy
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelli Notetaker on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to XANTHRO 2AC at University of California Berkeley taught by Kent G Lightfoot in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Anthro 2AC 9/30/2016  Read: Johnson 2010 Chap 2 V.  HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY 2.  Culture History Approach (1920­1960)  D.  Historical Particularism, ­ diachronic. All human cultures were thought to be unique and  must be understood by its own terms and each cultural has its own history and past. Each  unique culture was shaped by their history. Define Culture Areas in Space; ­ thought to be a geographic unit of culture defined by  continuous distribution of similar cultural elements. Tribal areas.  Trace Culture Areas back in time using Direct Historical Approach; ­ using direct historical  approach. Cultural continuity through people. Examine how material culture changed or  stayed similar over time.  Define “Culture”; ­ set of rules that are shared and learned by members of a specific group that  determine their patterns of behavior. Can be transcended over years. Diachronic.  Historical continuity.  Normative Model of Culture – each unique culture is characterized by normative or ideal rules.  Thought of a grammar of culture. These rules were handed down by each generation that  led to different responses in specific social context. “Cultural Norms” or “Shared Ideas”;  also prescribed the proper way to manufactured, use and discarded materials. Each group  has a different tolerance of doing things.  Concept of Cultural Relativism; ­ that each culture is unique and different in their own right and  no two cultures would have the same rules and norms. Define Modal Artifact Types (Mental Template); ­ thinking about the central tendencies in how  people produced features, pottery, tools, and other material culture of specific cultures.  There was an ideal way to make something and use in a particular group. Help date  things by what was produced and found.  Produce Time­Space Grids – define boundaries of different modal types. How Culture Areas grow or develop over time; Examine Modal Types in Time and Space  E.  Diffusion (of ideas, materials or people) – emphasized the uniqueness of each culture showed differences. But when archaeologists found similarities they typically relied on diffusion.  Diffusion is contact between members of cultures. Very common in 1920s and 1930s. At the  time thought high culture was from Egypt.  F.  Advances in Archaeology Description of Archaeological Remains; ­ begin to see good descriptions. Recorded and  excavated many sites. Got great info from archaeological remains. Would define mobile types of  artifacts.  Excavation of Sites; Produce Site Reports; ­ improved laboratory and field types. Had  standardized ways. Defined physical properties used to defined modal type.  Advances in Laboratory Techniques; ­ Define Modal Types; Field Methods: ­ Stratigraphic Excavations; ­  Chronology: Relative Dating; ­ to define temporal periods of areas. Relative Dating  methods is if its older or younger type than something else. Based of stratigraphic types.  Absolute Dating – Calendar Years – can date something in calendar used and use that to  define modal types of the material culture.  B.C. and A.D. (year of our lord) Dates; ­ employing Christian calendar dates. Most dates  read are these C.E. (current era) and B.C.E. (before contemporary era) Dates; ­ Recently seeing these.  Essentially the same calendar days. Using a non­Christian way. B.P. (before present) Dates; ­ typically before 1950. It is because radiocarbon dating.  Dendrochronology­ 1929 date wood in archaeological context by tree ring pattern. Date  the cutting of that tree on a year. Most precise. Radiocarbon Dating – C14 dating.  Developed in 1940s. WF Libby Nobel Prize in physics. Based on the radioactivity of  unstable carbon elements. Take it back to 50,000­70,000 years. 3. Processual or New Archaeology (1960­1980); Cultural Process Approach – second major approach in anthropological archaeology.  Critique about the cultural history approach. Growing disenchantment of younger generation by  going past the plotting the culture areas in time space grids.  A.  Criticisms of Culture History Approach i) Emphasis on Artifact Classification ­ ii) Description vs. Explanation (Diffusion) ­ B.  Cultural Evolution (Multilinear) Cross­Cultural Regularities vs. Particularities,        Micro/Macro Scales, Broader Generalizations        or General Processes; No longer emphasize Diffusion; Rather Cultural Processes; Study of Cross­Cultural Regularities; C.  Techno­Environmental Explanations; Cultural Materialism; Cultural Adaptations; Prime Movers (Technology/ Environment), 3  Premises of Model: i)Natural Environment/Technology  ­ Prime Movers      ii) Relatively few Options for  Cultural Adaptations?     iii) Systems Approach; Feedback Cycles;         Evolutionary Fitness; Arch. are Comfortable with Cultural Materialism: Environ. + Technology Anthro 2AC 9/26/2016 Read:  Sharer and Ashmore 2014, Chap 3 V.  HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY 1.  Practice of American Archaeology (1900­1920) ­  D. Case Study: Mound Builders’ Debate; by the 1880s. Was it the native people’s or some other  people who came and then left?  Cyrus Thomas from Smithsonian Institution; the federal museum. Cyrus was put in  charge of figuring of what happened to the mounds. He made a very convincing argument that it  was built by native people.  Late Prehistoric Mounds of Midwest and Southeast (Burial, Platform with temples and  chiefs, Geometric Mounds) Questions Raised: Who Built the Mounds?   Mound Builders Myth; Early Development of Historical Anthropology:  Archaeology/Ethnography there was a close similarity, Ethnohistory looked at early  observations of early explorers, Biological Anthropology looked at human skeleton  remains. Did an ostiological studies on these remains. They could see no big differences  of the people buried in the mounds and contemporary native peoples; Used Direct  Historical Approach used information from all aspects to come up with a conclusion;  E.   Conclusion: Rise of Anthropological Archaeology;  Archaeology Taught in Anthropology Departments was used in early anthropological  departments. Harvard, Columbia, UCB (1901); Brought in the Classic Four­Field Approach in Anthropology (direct historical approach)  Differed from Paleolithic Archaeology (how humans evolved) in Europe; Differed from  Classical Archaeology; Constructed cultural history about the tribes. Anthropological  archaeology diverged from the practice of archaeology around the world 2.  Culture History Approach (1920­1960) Recognition: Native American antiquity + Change – increases the awareness of the  societies of native people’s here in the Americas. Growing recognition that natives did not  remain static or timeless. Labeled by cultural transformations. Historical continuity and major  period of changes.  A. Chronology Building how we date archaeological sites; Stratigraphic Excavation; Stratification; were increasingly being employed. Employed it from geology. Looking at  the layers or Strata Defined in Archaeological Site; Law of Superposition any  sedimentary strata that hasn’t been disturbed since accumulated oldest at base and  youngest on top; Sequence of Deposition; B. Seriation­ Ordering of Artifacts in Temporal Sequence; From Oldest to Youngest; Examples:  i.  Three­Age System; employed in Europe. Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age.  ii.  Max Uhle, Emeryville Shell Mound; developed the use of stratigraphy. 10 time  intervals.  iii. Manuel Gamio, Valley of Mexico; looking at pottery. There was a long evolution of  high society.  iv.  Nels Nelson, Pueblo Sites in Amer. SW, Used Arbitrary Levels’ did work on the shell mounds. Worked on prehistoric sites in New Mexico. Ceramics used over time and was used to  date sites.  C.  Paleo­Indian Sites ­­1926 – Discovery of Folsom Site, New Mexico – Fluted Points,  Hunt Bison antiquus; 1930s – Clovis Site big game site; Hunt Mammoths; 11,000­11,500 BP – pushed the antiquity of Native Americans back to the ice age. The first of big game  hunters. Other was campsites or special service sites.  D.  Historical Particularism, Define Culture Areas in Space; Trace Culture Areas back in time  using Direct Historical Approach; Define “Culture”; Normative Model of Culture; “Cultural  Norms” or “Shared Ideas”; Concept of Cultural  Relativism; Define Modal Artifact Types (Mental Template); Produce Time­Space Grids; How Culture Areas grow or develop  over time; Examine Modal Types in Time and Space; E.  Diffusion (of ideas, materials or people)  


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