History 1320: Week One Notes
History 1320: Week One Notes HIST 1320
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Dixon on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1320 at Texas State University taught by J. Selcraig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History US to Date in History at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
History 1320 – History after 1865 Texas State University J. Selcraig Race Relations After Civil War Reconstruction: Series of Reforms (changes) which impacted the South at the end of the civil war Radical Republicans: Leaders who pushed and enforced reconstruction 13 amendment; by abolishing slavery 14 amendment: guarantees the legal equality by law that all Americans are trethed equally 15 amendment: grant the right to vote to black men, allowing black men to be elected into office, democrats were opposed to this idea they wanted segregation and discrimination still Reconstruction ends with the Compromise of 1877 Age of Segregation (1877-1920) - Pushed by white supremacy Racist violence: - Lynching: group of whites will kill a black person slowly in front of a crowd of people, people would just stand and watch and not help, Police do not help to arrest and convict anyone, whites in the South supported this type of behavior, mainly to inflict fear in the black community - Politics: Southern state laws sole purpose was to exclude black men being able to vote, with such things like the poll and literacy tax - Segregation: Southern state laws required separate schools/facilities for blacks and whites, white facilities will be funded much better than blacks, they nicknamed these laws Jim Crow laws, their key goal was power and inequality - Sharecropping: Southern whites would own land, black person would work for them, the black is promised a share of land if they work it, but the white southerner generally cheats them out of it, blacks would then remain in poverty with less money becoming economically disadvantaged African American Resistance: - Christianity: Blacks believed God opposed racist injustice, and If God is in opposition that gives the oppressed a sense of hope, a sort of reassurance - Work: Booker T Washington started his own school Tuskegee Institute made it for them to have more practical jobs OTHER than sharecropping, though it was open to everyone no white ever attended, He downplayed political views didn’t get into major problems - Political Activism: Homer Plessy, Plessy v Ferguson challenged the segregation policy, case went all the way to the Supreme Court, SC ruled against him saying segregation is equal - WEB Dubois: NAACP founder, blacks and whites work together who all believed in integration, Resisting the system of segregation, criticized Washington for not being so politically open Businessmen and Economics (1865-1900) History 1320 – History after 1865 Texas State University J. Selcraig Railroads: - Cornelius Vanderbilt: creator of Railroads, became dominant transportation, laid a lot more track had from East to West, New fuel was Coal, coal mining industry INCREASED, developed Standard Time Zone - Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie Steel Company, not famous when he starts off, Steel was a new product (Iron+Coal=Steel), Steel Is A LOT stronger than iron, led to the building of skyscrapers, sold to railroads so they can put on the ground - John D Rockefeller: Standard Oil, Oil new product, used for lightening =kerosene, had a lot of oil refineries in the North but sold to everyone nationally - Thomas Edison: Invented the lightbulb, tries to sell but fails, too expensive and complicated to build the grid , phonograph fails to sell to consumers as well - Alexander Graham Bell: Invents telephone, failed as a businessman, was too complicated to build the grid, Patents to AT&T - Theodore Vail: Will take the time to build the telephone grid, AT&T becomes dominant telephone network - George Eastman: After Civil War he will invent an easy to use camera, affordable, named it Kodak Newspapers: New printing press, result more papers being printed, cheaper than before, Print Culture because newspapers talk about headline stories but they have ads which generated consumers to buy more things Retail: Dept. stores are in big cities, mail order business people could order through catalog gen. had customers in small towns/cities, Montgomery Ward, Richard Sears, everything delivered by Railroad Stock Market: J.P. Morgan - investment banker, buys stock in multiple businesses and combines the businesses together, he bought Carnegie's business which did more than doubled it, he believed in a combination of businesses - He will buy several businesses and make them into big companies - He bought Carnegie Steel more than doubling the number of employees Agriculture Production: Huge increase in all crops, farmers could sell to more people with the expansion of the railroads Food processing business: Meat packers, changed meat to consumer edible products, Gus Swift, Philip Armour, Chicago center of meat packing, Cattle drives to railroads (cowboys), Tied the U.S. together East to West Overall economic characteristic: sense of change being modern, rise of big business/trusts, era of economic boom, Depressions (economic slumps) 1870s & 1890s, with a rise in big businesses