Week 6 (September 25-30) - Race and Racism
Week 6 (September 25-30) - Race and Racism ANT3451
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3451 at University of Florida taught by Mary Elizabeth Ibarrola in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Race and Racism in Cultural Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Monday, September 26, 2016 Intersectionality: Where race, class, and gender meet Intersectionality Long history of work from black and feminist scholars o Complex factors shape our lives o Differences exist among women and men, not just between them o Race, class, and gender are not separate issues Anna Julia Cooper o School-teacher, activist, writer o A Voice from the South 1892 Black people should be the authorities on Black lives o Criticized feminists and voting rights groups Angela Davis o Political activist, writer o 1960S o Birmingham AlabamaDynamite Hill Black neighborhood that was targeted by hate groups by dynamite explosions Her mother was particularly active in the communist involvement She was a leading black, feminist communist in the U.S. Anyone who tries to separate these struggles is playing on the enemy’s side Kimberle Williams Crenshaw o Law professor at UCLA o Critical Race Scholar o Coined “intersectionality” in 1989 Applicability of Black feminism to anti-discrimination law Wanted an accessible term, easily understood Justice Clarence Thomas 1991 Senate confirmation hearings Bush’s nominee – conservative Allegedly sexually harassed Anita Hill at EEOC o Crenshaw was part of Anita Hill’s team Thomas – “high tech lynching” o Dismisses the idea that women are subject to violence Intersectionality: Definition Understanding of human beings (and their position I the world) as shaped by the interaction of various social “locations” (race, ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, class, sexuality, geography, age, disability, migration status, religion, etc.) Intersecting oppressions – inequality never stands alone Audre Lorde We can’t create a hierarchy of oppressions Sexism and racism can’t be ranked Relational Intersectionality in Research Intersectionality encourages researchers, policy makers and social change leaders to: o Move beyond single identities or group-specific concerns – “one size fits all” o Explore new research and policy approaches o Generate new and more complete information Taken an Intersectional Approach You: o Your identity, privilege, impact, group membership Identities: o Who? Why are they vulnerable? Conditions: o Policy, practice, law, social views Solutions: o Policy, practice, law, social view to be changed Wednesday, September 28, 2016 Race and ClassPart 1: Race Replaces class Replaces Race Race Replaces Class Race has been linked to economic inequity since the colonial era Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 o Slave workers fighting upper class o Working class collaborated for improved rights Legal privileging of whites, exclusion of blacks Race replaces class Class and Slavery Racial class over economic station Southern lawmakers worked to unite whites Working class whites gained racial privilege o Even if they don’t have the advantages of wealth they gained the privilege of being white After the Civil War Exclusion of people of color form unions W.E.B. DuBois o “Psychological wage” o White class status elevated by racial subordination Racism hampered economic coalitions Race Riot in East St. Louis – 1917 February – Black workers hired to replace striking white union members at the Aluminum Ore Company o Black men were going to the north to get industrial jobs th May 28 – City council meeting, rumor of robbery, white mobs terrorize the city July 2nd– Exchange of gunfire, black men, women, and children beaten and killed, houses burned. Race and Social Safety Nets 1930s and 40s – New Deal enjoyed widespread support, housing programs popular o Excluded people of color Through occupation (agriculture and domestic work) Through “desirability” (subsidized segregation) Cash Welfare Government programs become a “problem” when access is expanded “Mothers’ Pensions” o 1933 – 3% go to African American households o 1960 – “Suitable home” law bumps 30,000 mothers o Governor Jimmy Davis – mothers receiving assistance are “a bunch of prostitutes” Payback for desegregation of schools 1960s and 70s – Welfare enrollment triples Welfare Rights Lemming Rule o 1960 o Aid cannot be denied on the basis of “suitable home” o It’s about the children and not their circumstances National Welfare Rights Organization o 1966 – 1975 o Adequate income, dignity, justice, democratic participation o Johnnie Tillmon chair, grassroots organizer Welfare is a women’s issue The Welfare Queen Welfare fraud o Linda Taylor o $8,000 in fraud, four aliases o 1974 Chicago Tribune and Jet Magazine Ronald Reagan o 1976 Campaign o Critical of social programs Lead to reform in the 1980s and 90s o Aid to Families with Dependent Children replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families People can’t be overusing this assistance Inventing “the Poor” Contemporary link between race and class Culminates in “the welfare queen” Tied to ideas about family The Moynihan report 1965 Daniel Patrick Moynihan o Sociologist, Politician, Assistant secretary of Labor The Negro Family: The Case for National Action o Advisory document, future of civil rights – away from “radicalism” and economics o Slavery irreparably damaged the black family o Dysfunctional families were responsible for limited economic and educational achievement W.E.B. Du Bois Sociologist, civil rights activist (Niagra Movement) The Study of the Negro problems (1898), The Philadelphia Negro: A social Study (1899) The “Negro problems” – uneducated, sickly, poverty stricken, isolated Legacy of slavery E. Franklin Frazier Sociologist, professor Northern migration o Economic opportunity and upward mobility o Resulted in family desertion Social issues ultimately cause by slavery 1930’s, 40s, 50s Friday, September 30, 2016 Race and Class – Part 2: “The Poor” The Puerto Rican “Problem” Operation Bootstrap 1948 – rapid industrialization, results in unemployment o Incentives o Tax cuts o Increase unemployment of Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican mainland population: o 53,000 in 1930 o 1,454,000 in 1969 o Circular migration Working for a while and then leaving Newspaper claim: unwanted, unassimilable, diseased, poor Puerto Ricans and Welfare Claim by NYC welfare commissioner that immigration had caused sharp rise in fraud Newspapers claim welfare cases increased by 54% in areas with concentrated Puerto Rican population Unfounded Less than 8% of PR population applied/less than 4% of cases were PR immigrants Columbia study concludes that Puerto Rican immigrants were largely successful The Culture of Poverty Lewis 1961 – American Anthropological Association o Difference between poor and working class (cultural distinction) Poverty is not only something negative Positive in the sense that is has o Structure o Rationale o Defense Mechanisms These things are passed down “The Poor” Culture of poverty Family and sex patterns differ from middle class Family and sex patterns of African Americans differ from these of the whites on the same socioeconomic level La Vida (1966) Oscar Lewis, sociologist Shifts debate from economics to sex Family relations – Unit of analysis Poverty cause by large families, poor birth control use, machismo, women’s modesty and sexuality o Not colonialism or unemployment Unacademic Not representative Disregards data from “Puerto Rico Project” “Cheap piece of pornography” Suggests higher wages, increased political activism – only in intro The Culture of Poverty Absent fathers, matriarchal families, children born to young mothers, poor work habits, violence, sex obsession Children enculturated by age 6 Social science solution to political problem o Fix the culture, not the poverty Class as a proxy for race o White and other American Neo-Conservatism Image of welfare racialized by the 1970s Racialization of social policy Taxes understood as a redistribution scheme in which “productive” (read: white) people are burdened so as to benefit “lazy” (read: black) people People don’t deserve welfare because poor people got to be poof because of their own fault Dubois and the “psychological wage” The American Dream Middle Class From the Pew Research Center: Don Lemon Internalized the neo-conservative message Suggests social issues are internal His “advice” o Pull up your pants o Stop using the N-word o Respect where you live o Finish school o Stop having children
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