Week 6 (September 25-30) - Sex Roles
Week 6 (September 25-30) - Sex Roles ANT3302
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Monday, September 26, 2016 Labor & Gender, Part II: Industrial Economies Review: Subsistence Strategies, Roles & inequalities Foraging Societies o Dobe Ju/’hoansi o Some division of labor, both sexes engaged in about the same amount of work o No significance property ownership o Very little status difference between women and men Horticultural – Gender Inequality influenced by: o Individual ability to control distribution of food, other resources o Post-marital residence rules o Frequency of warfare o Yanomamo Agriculture o More social stratification, stratification between casts or classes (varying degrees of inequality) o Emergence of state societies, which often develop or intensify gender hierarchies o State power typically wielded primarily/entirely by men, reduced autonomy for women o Incas Industrial Societies TH Industrial Revolution begins in Europe & us, Late 18Century o Men, women and children working o Typically, the patriarch will manage the labor of the family and in the home o Informal second shift o Women would drop from the work force because of the domestic responsibilities o Technology skyrockets o Eventually children were not permitted to work o Unmarried women start being the only ones who work Factories by day, dorms by night Communal meals Employers took control over the women working Women would work only out of necessity o Both husband and wife were seen as important for household succeeding o Competition starts buildings up, housing goes out Leading to strikes o Industrial system there is a shift Kin-groups control was declining o Women were suited for domestic tasks and men went to work Women had to create a shelter for the men after work Cult of domesticity o People of color in the Industrial economy Married African American women were more likely to be working more than their husbands Irene Mound & the New Deal Complicating our view or work & gender Men’s typical work was road and building construction, carpentry, painting, writing, ditch digging, photography, acting Educated white women were writing, acting, typing, and teaching Uneducated women were cleaning, attending the sick, sewing First ever to use women in an excavation o Black women were excavating and doing the physical work o White women were taking notes and interpreting data There was no politics of equality pushed by the project o Work of black women was considered unsuitable to white women Complicating our view of work & gender 4 ways this work might not have been great: o Likely paid less than male or white counterparts o Negative public statement on African American femininity o Daily isolation with white men, in a historical context of predation o Employment dead-end: no transferable skills Mexican Immigrants (1880 – 1920) Men’s roles: o Provided main source of income o Work often required frequent moves o Physically intensive jobs o Most frequent occupations: Railroads—e.g. cutting ties Women’s roles: o Provided supplementary income o Often relegated to domestic work that required them to be “Americanized” Cooking, cleaning, laundry Sewing, basket making Growing produce in personal gardens for sale Chinese Immigrants (1850-1910) Men’s roles: o Many sought work to send money back home, or to make money and return to China themselves o Frequent occupations: Gold Mining Railroad construction (especially the Transcontinental Railroad) Women’s roles: o Influenced by the low rate of immigration o Traditional employment included: Laundries Canneries Restaurant work o Often unable to get work aside from prostitution Irish Immigrants (1850-1900) Men’s roles o Need for employment left them vulnerable to abuse o Saloons as social safe spaces o Frequent occupations Factories Railroad work Mines Boar building, dockhands Women’s roles o Domestic duties remained traditional, even though both men & women worked outside the home o Frequent occupations: Factories Textile mills Laundries Household servants Antonio Gramsci & Hegemony Hegemony: o Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of that society so that the ruling class worldview becomes accepted as the cultural form o Justifies the social political and economic status quo as natural & inevitable, rather than as artificial social construct that only benefits the ruling class Foucault & Governmentality Governmentality: o Refers to the way that the state exercise control over the body of its populace o The way in which people are taught to govern themselves o No truth independent of power o Indirect
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