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Week 6 (September 25-30) - Sex Roles

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Week 6 (September 25-30) - Sex Roles ANT3302

Marketplace > University of Florida > Anthropology > ANT3302 > Week 6 September 25 30 Sex Roles
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we saw on Week 6: Labor & Gender
Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective
Amber Grafft-Weiss
Class Notes
sex, roles, Anthropology, Anthro
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT3302 at University of Florida taught by Amber Grafft-Weiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Sex Roles a Cross-Cultural Perspective in Anthropology at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Monday, September 26, 2016 Labor & Gender, Part II: Industrial Economies Review: Subsistence Strategies, Roles & inequalities  Foraging Societies o Dobe Ju/’hoansi o Some division of labor, both sexes engaged in about the same amount of work o No significance property ownership o Very little status difference between women and men  Horticultural – Gender Inequality influenced by: o Individual ability to control distribution of food, other resources o Post-marital residence rules o Frequency of warfare o Yanomamo  Agriculture o More social stratification, stratification between casts or classes (varying degrees of inequality) o Emergence of state societies, which often develop or intensify gender hierarchies o State power typically wielded primarily/entirely by men, reduced autonomy for women o Incas Industrial Societies TH  Industrial Revolution begins in Europe & us, Late 18Century o Men, women and children working o Typically, the patriarch will manage the labor of the family and in the home o Informal second shift o Women would drop from the work force because of the domestic responsibilities o Technology skyrockets o Eventually children were not permitted to work o Unmarried women start being the only ones who work  Factories by day, dorms by night  Communal meals  Employers took control over the women working  Women would work only out of necessity o Both husband and wife were seen as important for household succeeding o Competition starts buildings up, housing goes out  Leading to strikes o Industrial system there is a shift  Kin-groups control was declining o Women were suited for domestic tasks and men went to work  Women had to create a shelter for the men after work  Cult of domesticity o People of color in the Industrial economy  Married African American women were more likely to be working more than their husbands Irene Mound & the New Deal  Complicating our view or work & gender  Men’s typical work was road and building construction, carpentry, painting, writing, ditch digging, photography, acting  Educated white women were writing, acting, typing, and teaching  Uneducated women were cleaning, attending the sick, sewing  First ever to use women in an excavation o Black women were excavating and doing the physical work o White women were taking notes and interpreting data  There was no politics of equality pushed by the project o Work of black women was considered unsuitable to white women  Complicating our view of work & gender  4 ways this work might not have been great: o Likely paid less than male or white counterparts o Negative public statement on African American femininity o Daily isolation with white men, in a historical context of predation o Employment dead-end: no transferable skills Mexican Immigrants (1880 – 1920)  Men’s roles: o Provided main source of income o Work often required frequent moves o Physically intensive jobs o Most frequent occupations:  Railroads—e.g. cutting ties  Women’s roles: o Provided supplementary income o Often relegated to domestic work that required them to be “Americanized”  Cooking, cleaning, laundry  Sewing, basket making  Growing produce in personal gardens for sale Chinese Immigrants (1850-1910)  Men’s roles: o Many sought work to send money back home, or to make money and return to China themselves o Frequent occupations:  Gold Mining  Railroad construction (especially the Transcontinental Railroad)  Women’s roles: o Influenced by the low rate of immigration o Traditional employment included:  Laundries  Canneries  Restaurant work o Often unable to get work aside from prostitution Irish Immigrants (1850-1900)  Men’s roles o Need for employment left them vulnerable to abuse o Saloons as social safe spaces o Frequent occupations  Factories  Railroad work  Mines  Boar building, dockhands  Women’s roles o Domestic duties remained traditional, even though both men & women worked outside the home o Frequent occupations:  Factories  Textile mills  Laundries  Household servants Antonio Gramsci & Hegemony  Hegemony: o Domination of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class, who manipulate the culture of that society so that the ruling class worldview becomes accepted as the cultural form o Justifies the social political and economic status quo as natural & inevitable, rather than as artificial social construct that only benefits the ruling class Foucault & Governmentality  Governmentality: o Refers to the way that the state exercise control over the body of its populace o The way in which people are taught to govern themselves o No truth independent of power o Indirect


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