Psychology 201: Mind and Brain Week 1 Notes
Psychology 201: Mind and Brain Week 1 Notes PSY 201
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POLI 201 004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pauline Kozakjian on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain in Psychology at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Week 1: Tue, Sep. 27 Thu, Sep. 29 Psychology 201: Mind and Brain History of Psychological Science scientific study of mind, brain and behavior. Use of objective measures to determine natural laws that govern the mind and behavior Objective measures: repeatable, publicly observable, and immune to bias Natural laws: specific principles held to be derived from nature; universal and predictable Difference between mind and brain? Brain: computer Mind: software The Mind/Body Problem: are the mind and brain separate/distinct or are they one? Dualism world is made up of mental (soul) and physical (body) substances Plato Manism- world (mind & body) are explained by one category of substance. Aristotle- brain is “a cooling organ” Philosophical debate in 1600’s -Descartes- formulized argument for dualism, suggesting that external soul controlled body through an interface with pineal gland. -Hobbes- “materialism”- nothing exists except matter and energy. -Modern psychologists base on materialist view of mind- Phrenology- study of structure of skull to determine one’s character and mental capability. Gall -brain; organ of mind -mind; distinct, innate faculties -brain made up of sub units -size of brain measures its power -shape of brain based on sub units -Modularity of mental functions- it is commonly accepted principle that mental functions can be categorized as independent processes. -Localization of function- certain functions in the brain are localized in different areas of it Broca’s aphasia- some of the first good evidence for localization of a complex cognitive process from Paul Broca, 1861 aphasia- deficit language processing -specific part of the brain controls production of speech Wernickes aphasia- “Jargon aphasia”, because patients can produce speech fluently, but content of speech is meaningless -associated with damage to more posterior brain region (superior temporal gyrus). -Observing the brain cannot give you insight into the mind. How can you tell what one is thinking? Wilhelm Wundt- reasoned that mental events take time and these can be measured. Introspecionism (Wundt)- study of conscious mental events by “introspection” Structuralism (Tichner)- uses introspectionism to break apart and assess components of conscious experience Problems with introspection -variability- each person’s perception is different -verification- lack of public access to introspections; misperception can’t be detected -reliance of consciousness- many interesting mental events are unconscious (memory, processing, ect.) -provides access to products of thinking Problems with structuralism -consciousness is not just the sum of its parts Apparent motion (phi)- one dot moving? Two alternating dots? Depends on ones perception. Gestalt psychology- laws of our ability to maintain a meaningful perspective in a chaotic world- the experience as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts Ex. Dog in a spotted background Behaviorism (Watson)- study of observable environmental effects on behavior; backlash to introspectionist/ structuralist idea of unobservable mental events Environmental cues “black box” (mind) behavior (response) -popularized by B.F Skinner and “Skinner Box” -rat/ bird conditioned to pull lever in order to obtain food Problems with behaviorism- -insufficiency- can’t full account for creativity, diversity or complexity -narrow scope- limiting science to only observations Cognitive science- uses behavior to infer what goes on in the mind to help understand conscious processes. Cognitive neuroscience- uses science to infer what goes on in the brain. Considers brain as a hardware of the mind.
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