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Week 6 notes

by: Appolonia Redmon

Week 6 notes psyc 3330

Appolonia Redmon

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these notes cover obsessive-compulsive-related and trauma-related disorders.
Abnormal psychology
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Appolonia Redmon on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc 3330 at Georgia Southern University taught by Conrad in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Abnormal psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia Southern University.

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Date Created: 09/30/16
Week 6 Pg. 1 Obsessive­compulsive diagnoses Obsessive­compulsive disorder: dsm­5 • Obsessions and/or compulsions   Obsessions:   • Recurrent, intrusive, persistent, unwanted thoughts, urges, or images • Person tries to ignore, suppress, or neutralize the thoughts, urges, or  images • Compulsions  : • Repetitive behaviors or thoughts that a person feels compelled to  perform to prevent distress or a dreaded event • Person feels driven to perform repetitive behaviors or thoughts in  response to obsessions or to adhere to rigid rules • Acts are excessive or unlikely to prevent the dreaded situation • Obsessions or compulsions are time consuming or cause clinically  significant distress Body dysmorphic disorder: dsm­5 • Preoccupation with one or more perceived deficits in appearance • Others find the perceived defect(s) slight or unobservable • The person has performed repetitive behaviors or mental acts (e.g.,  mirror checking, seeking reassurance, or excessive grooming) in  response to the appearance concerns • Preoccupation is not restricted to concerns about weight or body fat Hoarding disorder: dsm­5 • Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless  of their actual value • Perceived need to save items • Distress associated with discarding Week 6 Pg. 2 • Symptoms result in the accumulation of a large number of possessions that clutter active living spaces to the extent that their intended use is  compromised unless others intervene Etiology and treatment of obsessive­compulsive  disorders Etiology of ocd • Cognitive Behavioral Models • Adaptive value • Responses for reducing threat become habitual and difficult to  override • Individuals know that their obsessions/compulsions are irrational (this  is key) • Thought suppression • People with OCD may try harder than most to suppress their  obsessions—backfires • Tend to believe that thinking about something can make it more likely  to occur • Intense feelings of responsibility BDD • Tend to be detail oriented • Examine one feature at a time and become engrossed in small flaws • Consider attractiveness to be very important Hoarding Disorder • Poor organizational abilities • Unusual beliefs about possession of objects • Avoidance behaviors • Extreme emotional attachment to possessions Week 6 Pg. 3 • Feel comforted by objects and fear losing them Treatment • Medication: • Antidepressants (clomipramine) • Psychological: • Exposure and response prevention (ERP) BDD: • Interact with people who could be critical of their looks • Avoid activities that reassure them on their appearance • Hoarding: • Get rid of possession • Enhance insight and help foster desire to change • Deep brain stimulation  Trauma­related diagnoses Posttraumatic stress disorder: dsm­5 • Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual  violence in one or more of the following ways: • Experiencing the event personally • Witnessing the event in person • Learning that a violent or accidental death or threat of death occurred  to a close other • Experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to aversive details of the  event(s) other than through the media (i.e., police officers) • At least one intrusion symptom • At least one avoidance symptom • At least two symptoms of negative alterations in cognitions and mood, beginning after the event • At least two symptoms of changes in arousal and reactivity Week 6 Pg. 4 • Symptoms began or worsened after the trauma and continue for at  least 1 month Acute stress disorder: dsm­5 • Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual  violation (either directly experienced, witnessed, heard about) • Presence of 9 symptoms from any of the following categories: • Intrusion symptoms • Negative mood • Dissociative symptoms • Avoidance symptoms • Arousal symptoms • Duration is 3 days to 1 month after the trauma • Causes clinically significant distress or impairment Etiology and treatment of trauma­related disorders Risk factors • Genetic risk • High activity in the fear circuit • Childhood exposure to trauma • Attend selectively to cues of threat • Neuroticism and negative affectivity • Mowrer’s two­factor model Severity and type of trauma • Rates are doubled among those with a second tour of duty • NYC and 9/11 • Those exposed to most severe trauma are likely to develop PTSD Week 6 Pg. 5 • Traumas caused by humans are more likely to cause PTSD than  natural disasters Neurobiology • Hippocampus • Volume is smaller among those with PTSD • Hippocampal volume could increase the risk that a person will  respond to reminders of the trauma even in safe contexts • Hippocampal deficits may interfere with organizing coherent  narratives Treatment • Medication: • SSRIs • Psychological: • PTSD • Exposure treatment • Extinguish fear response • Imaginal exposure • ASD • Early intervention


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