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BIOL 1543, Chapter 4

by: Kenzie Miller

BIOL 1543, Chapter 4 BIOL 1543

Marketplace > University of Arkansas > Biology > BIOL 1543 > BIOL 1543 Chapter 4
Kenzie Miller
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are in class notes that hit the major points of chapter 4.
Principles of Biology
Dr. Shadwick
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Miller on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1543 at University of Arkansas taught by Dr. Shadwick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Chapter 4: Membrane Structure and Function Highlight​ = Key Term Highlight​ = Important Concept Diabetes ● High blood sugar (glucose) levels over a long period ○ Frequent urination increased thirst, higher hunger ● Many long-term health problems Fluid-mosaic model​ of plasma membrane ● Selectively permeable ● Maintains homeostasis ● Primarily made of proteins and phospholipids ● Amino acids can be polar or nonpolar ● Protein connected to sugar = g​ lycoprotein Permeability of membrane ● Selective ● Molecule ○ Size ○ Nature-polarity or charge ● Small molecules diffuse​ through membranes easier ● Charged molecules need channel proteins What characteristics of glucose (C H O ) make it unlikely to diffuse across a phospholipid 6 12 6 membrane? ● It’s a large polar molecule ● The hydroxyl group makes it polar How does glucose got to the membrane of an intestine cell? ● Diffusion:​ why do molecule diffuse? ○ They want to get away from each other ○ They have heat that allows them to move away from each other ○ They have heat that allows them to move away from each other ○ Move down the concentration gradient Problem with too much glucose ● Osmosis and osmotic pressure ● Isotonic-​ same amount dissolved inside cell as well as outside the cell ● Hypotonic- ​ less salt in solution than there is around the cell ○ Purified water (very little dissolved in it) ● Plant cell in hypotonic solution ○ Central vacuole fills with water and turgor pressure develops What would be the physiological response of a human that has too much glucose in their blood? ● Urinate more → pee would be sweet ● Thirst → drink more to try to fix it Symptoms of diabetes​ have to do with homeostasis ● Increased urination ● Increased thirst ● Bring back blood Functions of membrane proteins ● Channel proteins ○ Allow certain molecules through coding for proteins in DNA in nucleus ○ Cystic fibrosis- change in DNA for channel proteins ● Aquaporins ○ Specialized for water ● Carrier Proteins ○ Glucose requires carrier proteins (GLUT) to get through membrane ● Cell Recognition proteins ○ Glycoprotein let your body know it’s you ● Receptor Proteins ○ Get a signal and change things going on in the cell ● Enzymatic Proteins ○ Take a molecule and put it through an enzymatic reaction Insulin ● Rise in blood glucose causes pancreas to release insulin ● Insulin travels to different cells throughout the body to induce them to take up glucose Which type of membrane protein will insulin interact with? ● Receptor Proteins ○ Hormone that sends signal to receptor When insulin producing cells are attacked by someone’s own immune system. What type of membrane protein is probably involved? Cell recognition Some people are insulin sensitive.​ hat could cause this? ● Receptor protein not working ● Carry mutation that makes receptor protein not work ● GLUT 4 that doesn’t work (carrier protein) Transport across membranes ● Transport by carrier proteins ● Combine with a molecule or ion to be transported across the membrane Facilitated Transport ● Small molecules that are not lipid soluble ● Molecules follow the concentration gradient ● Energy is not required and is reversible Active Transport ● Molecules or ions combine with carrier proteins ○ Often called pumps ● Molecules move against the concentration gradient ○ Entering or leaving cell ○ Accumulate either inside or outside the cell ● Energy and carrier proteins are required ○ Usually by ATP Sodium-Potassium Pump 1. Carrier has a shape that allows it to take up 3 Na+ 2. ATP is split 3. Change in shape results and causes carrier to release 3 Na out of the cell 4. Carrier has a shape that allows it to take up 2K+ 5. Phosphate group is released from carrier 6. Change in shape results and causes carrier to release 2K+ inside the cell Exocytosis ● A vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane as secretion occurs Endocytosis ● Cells take in substances by vesicle formation ● Phagocytosis: ​ the material taken in is large, such as food particle or another cell. ● Pinocytosis: ​ occurs when vesicles from around a liquid or around very small particles ○ Receptor mediated endocytosis: ​ uses a receptor protein shaped so that a specific molecules, such as a vitamin, peptide hormone, or lipoprotein, can bind to it.


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