Week Six Notes
Week Six Notes Comm 101
Popular in Communications in the 21st Century
Popular in Communication
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Choma on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 101 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Aaron Duncan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Communications in the 21st Century in Communication at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Communication in the 21 Century COMM 101 Week Six Notes 9/26 Reading Assignment Convergence & the Reshaping of Mass Communication Industries in Transition The Good News for Media Industries o Media multitasking: simultaneously consuming many different kinds of media o Convergence: the erosion of traditional distinctions among media Changes o Concentration of Ownership and Conglomeration People of all ideologies feel the impact of concentration of ownership Conglomeration: the increase in the ownership of media outlets by larger, nonmedia companies Economies of scale – bigger can in fact sometimes be better because the relative cost of an operation’s output declines as the sizes of that endeavor grows Oligopoly: a concentration of media industries into an even smaller number of companies o Globalization The potential impact of globalization on the mass communication process speaks to the issue of diversity of expression o Audience Fragmentation Individual segments of the audience are becoming more narrowly defined; the audience itself is less of a mass audience Narrow casting/niche marketing/targeting: media targets smaller audiences that were alike in some important characteristic & therefore more attractive to specific advertisers Addressable technologies: technologies permitting the transmission of very specific content to equally specific audience members Taste publics: groups of people bound by little more than an interest in a given form of media content o Hyper Commercialism Selling more advertising on existing and new media and identifying additional ways to combine content and commercials are the two most common strategies – leads to hyper commercialism Product placement: the integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content Brand entertainment: when brands are, in fact, part of and essential to the program Many radio stations now accept payment from record promoters to play their songs, an activity once illegal and called payola o Erosion of Distinctions Among Media: Convergence Webisodes, Wi-Fi Convergence: the erosion of distinctions among media Synergy: using as many channels as possible for delivery Reasons for convergence: concentration, audience fragmentation, the audience itself Platform agnostic: having no preference for where we access our media content Developing Media Literacy Skills o Reconsidering the Process of Mass Communication One essential element of media literacy is having an understanding of the process of mass communication Interpreter A – the content producer The source, in the mass communication process is a large, hierarchically structured organization The Message Typically, many identical messages, mechanically produced, simultaneously sent, inflexible, and unalterable Really simple syndication (RSS): aggregators that allow web users to create their own content assembled from the internet’s limitless supply of material Appointment consumption: audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer or distributor Consumption-on-demand: the ability to consume content, anytime, anywhere Feedback & Interpreter B – the audience The audience is typically seen as large and heterogeneous, known to content producers and distributors in a relatively rudimentary way, little more than basic demographics 9/26 in class notes Chapter 6: Convergence & Reshaping of Mass Communication Mass Communication o Mass communication emerged in the 1830s, but it is experiencing a seismic shift o Movie attendance is in decline, record sales, dvd sales, and video game sales are all down o Newspaper circulation is decreasing and many papers are going out of business such as the 150-year-old Rocky Mountain News o Fifteen years ago the four major networks commanded 61% of the television viewing audience – today they command less than 30% o Radio station have gone out of business or are owned by major conglomerates like clear channel, which owns 1200 stations o Media conglomeration now own and control most of TV as well The Death of the American Newspaper o If mainstream print media and their websites fade away, serious new aggregators may have to work and search and cull and delve harder to provide a variety of reliable news to readers o The death of local coverage is also a concern o Local audiences are too small to generate the nits needed to fuel internet ad revenue o Who watches the Lincoln City Council, the Grand Island police department, or the North Platte Mayor’s Office? Media Conglomerates o The modern media conglomerates were the result of deregulation in the 1980s and 1990s o The 1980s FTC Improvement Act ironically stripped the FTC of its power to regulate advertising o The 1996 Telecommunications allowed for previously outlawed media oligopolies to exist o Oligopolies: a concentration of media industries into an ever smaller number of companies o Has the internet hurt or helped the convergence of mass media? Helped b/c there are now many different ways to get information o What about Net-Neutrality Internet low – forced sites to pay money for them to load faster The 6 Major Media Conglomerates: o GE, Time Warner, Viacom, Walt Disney, CBS, _____ corporation Impacts of Media Conglomerates o Globalization is behind the power of media conglomerates o Powerful entities not only control major networks and newspaper domestically but also around the globe o The internet is now controlled by a few major corporations like google, Facebook, Microsoft, cisco, and Yahoo! The Changing Media Landscape o Audience fragmentation: audiences are becoming more narrowly define and niche based The terms for catering to these smaller markets is called narrowcasting, niche marketing, or targeting o Addressable technologies: technologies that permit the transmission of very specific content to equally specific audiences o Taste publics: groups of people bound together by little more than an interest in a given media content o Hyper commercialism: occurs when a tv show/movie sells an ad built right into the show or scene of the film o Product placement: the integration of products into media content o Brand entertainment: when brands become part of the entertainment program Media Convergence o The boundaries between various media types is eroding o Celebrities tweet links to connect social media to traditional media o Platform agnostic: the idea that people do not have a preference for the medium which provides their media content 9/28 Rhetoric of Rape Culture Reading How Date Rape is Communicated on Campus Rape culture is defined as a culture in which rape is a common, almost expected event Several conditions foster a rape culture: o Rape myths – no really means yes o Campus groups such as athletic teams or Greek organizations tend to have an engrained rape culture o Alcohol contributes o Can exist when people are afraid to report rape How students talk about sex and rape, how they negotiate consent, and how they communicatively react to cases of date rape contribute to campus rape culture Ways to break the cycle: o Education about date rape for college students should focus on phases of date rape o Campuses and national organizations should take date rape as seriously as stranger rape by talking about it and encouraging reporting o Campus communities should study the practical use of up front, pre-date statements o If students become more knowledgeable about rape culture through education and unambiguous communication about the problem, perhaps misperceptions about sexual expectations would be decreased, and the existence of rape culture could be lessened 9/28 in class notes Communicating/Muting Date Rape o Every two minutes in the U.S. someone is raped o Over one-half are not reported o The purpose of this article is to understand rape on college campuses by viewing it as a communication phenomenon Rape Culture o Defined as a culture in which rape is a common, almost expected event o Typically, it occurs as a consequence of miscommunication about sexual assault Myths About Rape o Rape myths deny or minimize victim injury or blame the victims for their own victimization o “no” really means “yes” o women can resist rape if they wish o in most cases the victim is promiscuous o women falsely report rape to protect their reputations or because they are angry at someone Rape Culture o One explanation is that college campuses foster date rape cultures o Appears to foster silencing o Fewer than 5% of sexual offenses are reported to law enforcement o 1/20 actually reported o focus groups: college students especially women are in fact silenced before, during, and after the offense o campuses do not have a clear definition of rape o women prepare for risk on an interpersonal level as well o when rape occurs, ambiguity and the inability to articulate what occurred contribute to date rape o most male and female college students reported believing that consent is a one-time act (you cannot change your mind) o trust has been deteriorated and those who have been rape don’t know how others will react to them o women reluctant to report rape and supported silence – his word against mine o college campuses and communities tend to educate students about stranger rape, but not date rape o the ambiguity and confusion at the cultural level leads women to deny when date rape occurs o women tend to put their own communication on trial, wondering if they clearly communicated a lack of consent o this vicious circle silences women by making them feel baldy for not doing “enough” to protect themselves, while making women wonder what is enough? How do we change this culture? o Recognize that most rapes that occur are date/acquaintance rape o Need to stop blaming victims o Understand men can be victims as well o Involve men and women in an open dialogue about rape o Attempt to change the culture about rape
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