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GEO 121 Chapter 5 Notes

by: Grace Johnston

GEO 121 Chapter 5 Notes GEO 121

Marketplace > Miami University > Geography > GEO 121 > GEO 121 Chapter 5 Notes
Grace Johnston

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About this Document

Class and book notes for chapter 5
Introduction to Physical Geography
Dr. Bartosz Piotr Grudzinski
Class Notes
geography, Atmosphere, EARTH
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Johnston on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 121 at Miami University taught by Dr. Bartosz Piotr Grudzinski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at Miami University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Grace Johnston Chapter 5 1 of2 CHAPTER 5 NOTES The LayeredAtmosphere and Their Characteristics 9.27.16 The Troposphere • Layer closest to the earth • Tropos= turning or mixing • Most active layer • Temperature decreases until 57*C • The Tropopause • The top part of the troposphere • Air temperature increases with altitude The Stratosphere • Stratos= layer • Ozone layer is here • Efficiently filters UV • Absorption • Commercial airlines fly through this layer • Causing altitude 9-13 km (30k-40k ft) • Weather balloons also are found here • The Stratopause • The upper boundary of the stratosphere • Temperature stops increasing (Avg. 5*C) Mesosphere • Meso= middle • Coldest of all the layers • Vertical temperature trends, positive lapse rate • Meteors are found here, get burned up • The Mesopause • Upper boundary • Temperature reaches its lowest point here Thermosphere • Outermost layer • Therm= heat • International space • Magnetic field captures solar winds • Ionization of O and N atoms • Auroras are found here (330-410 km) Grace Johnston Chapter 5 2 of Surface andAir Temperatures • Heat: Energy that flows from high to low temperature via molecular interaction • Temperature:Average energy of molecules composing an object of substance • Measures sensible heat • 3 Types of heat transfer 1. Convection 2. Conduction 3. Radiation • Measured in Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin Human Interactions: Calculating Temperature • Large scale geographic factors play into this, latitude, season, length of the day • Wind Chill Index • Calculated using:Actual air temperature, wind speed, heat loss theory • Higher wind speed, lower wind chill • Heat index • Measures apparent temperature using:Actual air temperature, relative humidity • Higher humidity, higher heat index Local Factors that InfluenceAir Temperature • Maritime Effect • Located in or near large bodies of water • Low, gradual annual and diurnal change • Water heats more slowly, stores energy • Radiation penetrates to lower depths • Heated water mixes with cooler water • Evaporation transfers energy into atmosphere • Continental Effect • Surrounded by land mass • Relatively fast, drastic change • Land heats and cools quickly, not storing energy • Radiation does not penetrate surface • Low evaporation rates • Urban Heat Island • The relatively warm temperatures associated with cities that occur because paved surfaces and urban structures absorb and release radiation differently from the countryside • Stays warmer because of the materials used in cities • Metals, concrete, glass, asphalt, darker surfaces (low albedo) • Water is not on the surface, heats quicker • Human activity, production of electricity


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