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MUS 225 Week 4 Class Notes

by: Grace Johnston

MUS 225 Week 4 Class Notes MUS 225

Marketplace > Miami University > Music > MUS 225 > MUS 225 Week 4 Class Notes
Grace Johnston

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Class notes for week 4
History of Rock and Roll
Dr. Thomas G. Garcia
Class Notes
Rock, and, Roll, hisotry
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Johnston on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 225 at Miami University taught by Dr. Thomas G. Garcia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see History of Rock and Roll in Music at Miami University.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
MUS 225 Week 3 9/15/16 EARLY ROCKAND ROLLII Chuck Berry Performers of early rock and roll were predominantlyAfricanAmerican • • EX: Fats Domino, Little Richard, Chuck Berry • Chuck Berry and Chess Records, Together • 3 Major Influences Electric Blues- Role of the Guitar 1. 2. Boogie Woogie 3. Rhythm and Blues • Chess Records Set the stage for rock and roll • • Country music released by Chess greatly influenced vocal delivery of rock and roll, eventually defined the sound of rock and roll • “Story Songs” Released by Chess Records Appealed to teen audiences- most songs spoke to and about them • • EX: School Days, Sweet Little 16 • Chuck’s Style • Electric guitar would always be the center of attention Songs greatly influenced by “Muddy Waters” • • 2 guitars including the lead guitar • Steady rhythm • Bass Biggest Hit: Johnny B. Goode • The Electric Guitar- 1931 • Most important instrument of rock and roll Guitar’sAbilities • • Substitute, respond and accompany vocals- sometimes even played over vocals for an even deeper rock and roll feel • Chuck Berry was a big fan of the electric guitar- proved the instrument’s worth in his greatest hits • Leo Fender • “Fender” Guitars- one of the biggest guitar companies in the US • 1946: Created the “solid body” guitar. Now used all the time today 1948: “Broadcaster” model • • 1950: “Esquire” model • 1951: Released 2 more models, “Broadcaster” —-> “Telecaster” Precision bass released Gibson Guitar • 1949: Model 175 released, brought back the hollowed body guitar • 1954: “Les Paul” model Humbucker Pickup- Reduced buzzing noise made by the guitar • MUS 225 Week 3 9/15/16 Rockabilly- 1950’s • Atype of music, originating in the southeastern US, combining elements of rock and roll and country music • EX: Jerry Lee Lewis “The Killer”, Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Buddy Holly Youth Culture of the 1950’s • Pop culture was predominately directed towards teens, was a big money maker • Caused a rebellion against conservatism- changed the teen dynamic “RockAround The Clock” by Chuck Berry was a massive hit, started the push towards teens • • Music was released in a time of political and economic stability • Explains the surplus in revenue and profit • Parents Worried that the music was evil • • Claimed that rock and roll caused a rise in juvenile delinquency Radio and Records Independent record companies used the radio to market their records • • Rise of the DJ (Disk Jockey) • Became very popular and necessary to all radio shows • Transistor Radios became inexpensive and portable, in cars Media • • Started to see rock and roll oriented radio shows,Alan Freed • Jukeboxes became an important commodity to businesses • Dance shows became all the rage with teens Payola • The practice of bribing someone to use their influence or position to promote records • Was not always bribed with money, mostly cocaine 1959- The Payola Investigations • • Was a long-standing practice in the music industry • Major labels sought market share and lost to Indie Labels because of payola • ASCAP struggled with BMI Industry • • FCC and FTC • DJ’s didn’t acknowledge gifts- tax evasion was a big issue with their group • Alan Freed was a major player in payola, was never caught but known Dick Clark was also a major player- claims to have never accepted any gifts • MUS 225 Week 3 9/15/16 MUSIC LICENSINGAND PRO’S PRO’s Performance Rights Organizations • • Controls mechanical performance rights and royalties for composers and publishers • Companies collect performing fees and distributes the funds to the affiliates • 3 Main Pro’s that Control 1. ASCAP 2. BMI 3. SESAC • ASCAP- 1914 American Society of Composers,Authors and Publishers • • Controlled by elected members • Members include Duke Ellington, Henry Mancini, George Gershwin, VAMPIRE WEEKEND OMG, Dave Matthews. BMI- 1939 • • Broadcast Music Inc. • Created by radio executives as a nonprofit organization • Roughly 600,000 members Made 814 Million in royalties in 2013 • • Members include Willie Nelson, Dolly Parton, Mariah Carey, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift. Maroon 5 • SESAC The Society of European StageAuthors and Composers • • Invite only to join, no longer European (Left in the 40’s) • Smallest PRO of the 3 • Not cubically funded so they do not have to disclose any royalties Members include Professor Garcia, Neil Diamond, Rush, Bob Dylan • The Charts • The charts were lists of the top songs of the season, were used to see official numbers and popularity of songs • Three Major Charts 1. Billboard 2. Cashbox 3. Radio and Records • Crossover- Record or song appearing on more than one chart • 1954 • Charts first created Many crossovers in R&B • • Rock hit the R&B charts in this year • Billboard • Started the charts in 1936 Developed the “Hot 100” chart in 1954 • MUS 225 Week 3 9/15/16 • Charts combined radio, single sales and downloads • Charts are available for every genre of music- still used today (electronic) Certifications • Longest running objective measure of achievement for sound recording • United States RIAA, has the most certifications • • Scale • 500,000 sold= Gold (1958) • 1 Million = Platinum (1976) 2 Million = Multi Platinum (1984) • • 10 Million = Diamond (1999) • International • IFPA Levels are similar, but at much smaller levels •


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