Fitness Notes- Specifics of Physical Activity
Fitness Notes- Specifics of Physical Activity APPH 1040 L
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APPH 1040 L at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Dr. Snow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/16
Unit 2: Fitness The physical Activity Pyramid o People in public health and policy talk about how important it is to get 75 - 150 minutes of moderate activity a week: 10 minutes per session Limit the sedentary activities Try to build in activities through out the day Strength training and muscle building is important: depends on goals o Starting to quantify sitting behavior: the risk of dying is higher Five components of health-related fitness: o Cardiorespiratory endurance o Muscular strength o Muscular endurance o Flexibility o Body Composition You are more likely to continue physical activity after 6 to 8 years after college if you have a schedule by senior year Start off slow: focus on one component to start with: don’t try to change everything at once Cardiorespiratory endurance: Aerobic o Ability to continue vigorous activity for an extended period of time. Involves both cardiovascular and respiratory systems o Hiking, o Should be continuous: good cardio o Strengthens the heart: makes you have more energy at the end of day, helps you when you have to do more vigorous activity The cardiovascular system: o Heart: Four chambers that pump blood through two different circulatory systems: About the size of a man’s chest Left’s side is a little bit stronger: pumping the blood to the rest of the body: getting blood to all of the different tissues o 1) Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae. o 2) Blood moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle; from there it is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs o 3) Blood picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide in the lungs; it then goes through the pulmonary veins in to the left atrium o 4) oxygenated blood is forced from the left atrium into the left ventricle; from there it is pumped through the aorta into the rest of the body’s blood vessels o “right” “left” like you are looking at somebody’s heart in front of you o Celia helps remove halogens o Lungs: facilitate the movement of oxygen into the blood: highly vascularized What is Cardiovascular or Aerobic Exercise? Energy Systems o Training needs to match goal and energy system that you are working towards o Two anaerobic systems: One just stores ATP: creatin works like that Works with stored ATP in the muscle: doesn’t give you enough energy Has to have contributions from anaerobic metabolism Lactic acid build up: makes you feel sore: discomfort Short term: little over a minute Gives us enough time to get oxygen to the muscles and get the proper amount of ATP Replenish carbohydrates: as long as the source is replenished: can keep going for long periods of time By 10 minutes, greater than 80% of ATP is produced aerobically Heart adapts to the training ACDM Guidelines for Cardiovascular: FITT components: when modifying one have to be aware of the others Start slow and work up Specificity: when setting up program, look at exercises that are training for a specific activity Overload: need to challenge or go at a higher workload to continue seeing improvements: muscles and hearts adapt and get stronger Progression: how can we do overload safety- 10% rule applies: Reversibility: don’t want to have too many days off of inactivity: have to have a frequencies; benefits can go away Recuperation: do need days off: need to rest to restore energy reserves and to adapt to the training Individual differences: genetics play a role, therefore, responses to training will vary Cardiorespiratory Program 3-5 days per week Not together; put a rest day in between Intensity: Moderate and/ or vigorous intensity Time: 20-60 minutes Type: Any rhythmic, continuous, large muscle group activity For sedentary or beginners: lower intensity, greater frequency, longer duration Weight bearing v. non-weight bearing: if you are supporting your body weight, then burns more calories Cross training: train different muscles using different methods o Gauge intensity with heart rate: you want to increase the heart rate to a level between 50-80% of Heart Rate reserve and maintain the intensity (takes into account of resting heart rate: tells about how active you are normally) o More people train and have a resting heart rate that goes down: heart is becoming stronger: doesn’t need to beat as many times to circulate as much blood as you need o How to Calculate heart rate reserve: 220- age = maximum heart rate o Heart rate reserve: max heart rate- resting heart rate o Take 50 to 80% of your heart rate reserve : then add resting heart rate back in and get target heart rate range When going below this: not challenging yourself enough o Then divide by 6 to get your 10 second count o When checking resting heart rate: best in the morning, should be seated for about 5 minutes, check before caffeine o Good resting heart rate: 60 – 80 beats per minute o CALCULATE TARGET HEART RATE: TEST QUESTION o This is out of water activities o For a good swimmer, heart rate will be lower- does not have to work as hard, because the temperature of the body is not as hot in the pool o In both activities, the perceived exertion will be the same o REP: rating of perceived exertion, high end 15 or 16 o For swimmers: take your normal range and subtract 8 beats for the heart rate o Fatigue much faster if you go higher than your target heart rate o With respect to the board scale, Amount of time spent exercising o 20-60 minutes o Principle of Progression—Use Ten Percent Rule o Do not change intensity and Duration at the same time o You do 30 minutes one week, increase by 10 percent and do 33 minutes the next week Initial Conditioning Phase: Starting at a comfortable intensity level o Increase duration or intensity gradually- by ten percent Increasing intensity has more of an impact Improvement Phase: Progress is more rapid than in initial phase o Body is more accustomed to exercise o Greater Training adaptations o Heart Rate is going down= because it is easier to do the work Maintenance Phase: o Fitness goal has been achieved o Continue exercising regularly, but no need to continue increasing duration, frequency, and intensity o Key factor in maintenance appears to be intensity level Easy way to reduce energy: cross training: different modes of activity to exercise Types of exercises should vary Fat-Burning Workout: o Resting: burning more fats than carbohydrates o Exercise intensity: burning more carbohydrates, fat utilization is going down Energy metabolism is higher- burning more calories Endurance sport: need intake of carbohydrates to maintain energy- 60% of diet should be carbohydrates for endurance activity Training adaptations: o Heart becomes stronger: able to pump more blood per beat o Get changes at the cellular level that allow us to extract oxygen and produce ATP better o Reduces type 2 diabetes- can control blood sugar o Strengthens bones: take in more bone minerals- content increases o Muscles strengthen After 56 days of detraining one study showed a approximately a 14% decrease in both maximal oxygen uptake and maximal stroke volume. After just 12 days of detraining, a 7% decline was seen in maximal oxygen uptake and 10% decline was seen in maximal stroke volume. When you detrain, don’t start where you started before, go back more and work your way up. FITT PRINCIPLE applies to muscular fitness and flexibility and cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular Fitness o 2-3 days per week, with breaks between o 50-80% of 1RM o 8-10 exercises, 1-4 sets, 8-20 reps o Resistance training (with body weight and/or external resistance) for all major muscle groups o 3 sets are ideal Flexibility o Minimally 2-3 per week o TO the point of tightness o 10-30 seconds per stretch, 2-4 reps o Stretching, dance, or yoga exercises for all major muscle groups Goal Specific Recommendations: o Beginners should work towards a general fitness program or towards an endurance side Don’t just jump into a strength training program o Should work out in the middle to increase muscular endurance: o Males and Female: 2-3 days per week, not consecutive days o Train opposing muscle groups so you don’t create a muscle imbalance Customizable programs are available to help you create a exercise program
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