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Fitness Notes- Specifics of Physical Activity

by: Sayali Punyarthi

Fitness Notes- Specifics of Physical Activity APPH 1040 L

Marketplace > Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus > APPH 1040 L > Fitness Notes Specifics of Physical Activity
Sayali Punyarthi


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These notes cover the different requirements and different types of physical activity as well as specific programs that can provide specific aide.
Sci Foundation of Health
Dr. Snow
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Friday September 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APPH 1040 L at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Dr. Snow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/30/16
Unit 2: Fitness  The physical Activity Pyramid o People in public health and policy talk about how important it is to get 75 - 150 minutes of moderate activity a week:  10 minutes per session  Limit the sedentary activities  Try to build in activities through out the day  Strength training and muscle building is important: depends on goals o Starting to quantify sitting behavior: the risk of dying is higher  Five components of health-related fitness: o Cardiorespiratory endurance o Muscular strength o Muscular endurance o Flexibility o Body Composition  You are more likely to continue physical activity after 6 to 8 years after college if you have a schedule by senior year  Start off slow: focus on one component to start with: don’t try to change everything at once  Cardiorespiratory endurance: Aerobic o Ability to continue vigorous activity for an extended period of time. Involves both cardiovascular and respiratory systems o Hiking, o Should be continuous: good cardio o Strengthens the heart: makes you have more energy at the end of day, helps you when you have to do more vigorous activity  The cardiovascular system: o Heart:  Four chambers that pump blood through two different circulatory systems:  About the size of a man’s chest  Left’s side is a little bit stronger: pumping the blood to the rest of the body: getting blood to all of the different tissues o 1) Deoxygenated blood flows into the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae. o 2) Blood moves from the right atrium into the right ventricle; from there it is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs o 3) Blood picks up oxygen and discards carbon dioxide in the lungs; it then goes through the pulmonary veins in to the left atrium o 4) oxygenated blood is forced from the left atrium into the left ventricle; from there it is pumped through the aorta into the rest of the body’s blood vessels o “right” “left” like you are looking at somebody’s heart in front of you o Celia helps remove halogens o Lungs: facilitate the movement of oxygen into the blood: highly vascularized  What is Cardiovascular or Aerobic Exercise? Energy Systems o Training needs to match goal and energy system that you are working towards o Two anaerobic systems:  One just stores ATP: creatin works like that  Works with stored ATP in the muscle: doesn’t give you enough energy  Has to have contributions from anaerobic metabolism  Lactic acid build up: makes you feel sore: discomfort  Short term: little over a minute  Gives us enough time to get oxygen to the muscles and get the proper amount of ATP  Replenish carbohydrates: as long as the source is replenished: can keep going for long periods of time  By 10 minutes, greater than 80% of ATP is produced aerobically  Heart adapts to the training  ACDM Guidelines for Cardiovascular:  FITT components: when modifying one have to be aware of the others  Start slow and work up  Specificity: when setting up program, look at exercises that are training for a specific activity  Overload: need to challenge or go at a higher workload to continue seeing improvements: muscles and hearts adapt and get stronger  Progression: how can we do overload safety- 10% rule applies:  Reversibility: don’t want to have too many days off of inactivity: have to have a frequencies; benefits can go away  Recuperation: do need days off: need to rest to restore energy reserves and to adapt to the training  Individual differences: genetics play a role, therefore, responses to training will vary  Cardiorespiratory Program  3-5 days per week  Not together; put a rest day in between  Intensity: Moderate and/ or vigorous intensity  Time: 20-60 minutes  Type: Any rhythmic, continuous, large muscle group activity  For sedentary or beginners: lower intensity, greater frequency, longer duration  Weight bearing v. non-weight bearing: if you are supporting your body weight, then burns more calories  Cross training: train different muscles using different methods o Gauge intensity with heart rate: you want to increase the heart rate to a level between 50-80% of Heart Rate reserve and maintain the intensity (takes into account of resting heart rate: tells about how active you are normally) o More people train and have a resting heart rate that goes down: heart is becoming stronger: doesn’t need to beat as many times to circulate as much blood as you need o How to Calculate heart rate reserve: 220- age = maximum heart rate o Heart rate reserve: max heart rate- resting heart rate o Take 50 to 80% of your heart rate reserve : then add resting heart rate back in and get target heart rate range  When going below this: not challenging yourself enough o Then divide by 6 to get your 10 second count o When checking resting heart rate: best in the morning, should be seated for about 5 minutes, check before caffeine o Good resting heart rate: 60 – 80 beats per minute o CALCULATE TARGET HEART RATE: TEST QUESTION o This is out of water activities o For a good swimmer, heart rate will be lower- does not have to work as hard, because the temperature of the body is not as hot in the pool o In both activities, the perceived exertion will be the same o REP: rating of perceived exertion, high end 15 or 16 o For swimmers: take your normal range and subtract 8 beats for the heart rate o Fatigue much faster if you go higher than your target heart rate o With respect to the board scale,  Amount of time spent exercising o 20-60 minutes o Principle of Progression—Use Ten Percent Rule o Do not change intensity and Duration at the same time o You do 30 minutes one week, increase by 10 percent and do 33 minutes the next week  Initial Conditioning Phase: Starting at a comfortable intensity level o Increase duration or intensity gradually- by ten percent  Increasing intensity has more of an impact  Improvement Phase: Progress is more rapid than in initial phase o Body is more accustomed to exercise o Greater Training adaptations o Heart Rate is going down= because it is easier to do the work  Maintenance Phase: o Fitness goal has been achieved o Continue exercising regularly, but no need to continue increasing duration, frequency, and intensity o Key factor in maintenance appears to be intensity level  Easy way to reduce energy: cross training: different modes of activity to exercise  Types of exercises should vary  Fat-Burning Workout: o Resting: burning more fats than carbohydrates o Exercise intensity: burning more carbohydrates, fat utilization is going down  Energy metabolism is higher- burning more calories  Endurance sport: need intake of carbohydrates to maintain energy- 60% of diet should be carbohydrates for endurance activity  Training adaptations: o Heart becomes stronger: able to pump more blood per beat o Get changes at the cellular level that allow us to extract oxygen and produce ATP better o Reduces type 2 diabetes- can control blood sugar o Strengthens bones: take in more bone minerals- content increases o Muscles strengthen  After 56 days of detraining one study showed a approximately a 14% decrease in both maximal oxygen uptake and maximal stroke volume.  After just 12 days of detraining, a 7% decline was seen in maximal oxygen uptake and 10% decline was seen in maximal stroke volume.  When you detrain, don’t start where you started before, go back more and work your way up.  FITT PRINCIPLE applies to muscular fitness and flexibility and cardiorespiratory endurance  Muscular Fitness o 2-3 days per week, with breaks between o 50-80% of 1RM o 8-10 exercises, 1-4 sets, 8-20 reps o Resistance training (with body weight and/or external resistance) for all major muscle groups o 3 sets are ideal  Flexibility o Minimally 2-3 per week o TO the point of tightness o 10-30 seconds per stretch, 2-4 reps o Stretching, dance, or yoga exercises for all major muscle groups  Goal Specific Recommendations: o Beginners should work towards a general fitness program or towards an endurance side  Don’t just jump into a strength training program o Should work out in the middle to increase muscular endurance: o Males and Female: 2-3 days per week, not consecutive days o Train opposing muscle groups so you don’t create a muscle imbalance  Customizable programs are available to help you create a exercise program


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